quarta-feira, 23 de setembro de 2009

Deformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics: Current Status and Future Perspectives

Deformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics: Current Status and Future Perspectives Publisher: Geological Society of London Pages: 424 2003 ISBN 1862391173 PDF 35 MBThe motion and deformation of rocks are processes of fundamental importance in shaping the Earth, from outer crustal layers to the deep mantle. Reconstructions of the evolution of the Earth therefore require detailed knowledge of the geometry of deformation structures and their relative timing, of the motions leading to deformation structures and of the mechanisms governing these motions. This volume contains a collection of 22 papers on field, experimental and theoretical studies that add to our knowledge of these processes. They are a mixture of review papers on selected topics in the field of structural geology and tectonics and papers on current issues and new techniques and are grouped into four themes: The effect of fluids on deformation; The interpretation of Microstructures and textures; Deformation mechanisms and rheology of crust and upper mantle minerals; Crust and lithosphere tectonics.

Principles of Glacier Mechanics

Roger LeB. Hooke, "Principles of Glacier Mechanics"Cambridge University Press ISBN:0521544165 2 edition (March 21, 2005) PDF 448 pages 5105 KB

This book provides students and practising glaciologists with the tools they need to understand modern glaciology. Relatively simple concepts are introduced first, followed by mathematically more sophisticated chapters. A knowledge of basic calculus is assumed, but important concepts of physical processes are developed from elementary principles. Emphasis is placed on connections between modern research in glaciology and the origin of features of glacial landscapes. Student exercises are included. This new edition builds on the successful first edition: it has been completely updated, and important new sections and whole chapters have been added. Principles of Glacier Mechanics is designed to be used as a primary textbook in upper division and graduate courses in glaciology, and can be used as either a primary or supplementary text in courses in glacial geology. Practising glacial geologists and glaciologists will also find it useful as a reference book.


terça-feira, 22 de setembro de 2009

National Geographic Secret Yosemite

National Geographic Secret Yosemite
English 60:00 720x480 PAL (25fps) DivX MP3 - 128kbps 1.0 GB
Genere: DocumentryYosemite National Park is the most visited National Park in the United States. National Geographic goes beyond the tourist hotspots and journeys deep into the dynamic and untamed wilderness behind 12,000 square miles of awe-inspiring natural wonders few have ever seen. Known for its steep granite cliffs, impressive waterfalls and the world's largest living trees—the Giant Sequoias—this beautiful haven attracts vacationers all year round. With more than 700,000 acres of land, this terrain is home to a host of wild creatures ranging from black bears, bobcats, foxes, snakes and a variety of bats. Discover this vast wilderness as National Geographic explores the life within the wilderness found beyond the postcard-perfect views.This DVD stays at the similar style as Secret Yellowstone by NG. It is not for people who want to get an overview of this park. It is just focused on some special topics, climbing El Capitan, climbing Half Dome, global warming and the Giant Sequoia. The part of Climbing El Capitan is quite an eye-opener for me, especially the King Swing. It is beyond my original imagination. For people who never have an experience of rock climbing like me, it is very exciting to see this. The shooting quality is good as most films by NG. The animation is helpful to explain the science and geology. Overall, this film is suitable for people who want to know something not commonly seen in Yosemite.

Discovery - 100 Greatest Discoveries - 4 of 9 - Earth Science


Discovery - 100 Greatest Discoveries - 4 of 9 - Earth Sciences

Discovery - 100 Greatest Discoveries - 4 of 9 - Earth SciencesXviD 4000 kbps 1280x720 29.97 fps AC3 45 min RS 1.36 GBScientists have transformed the way we think and live throughout the centuries. What are the most important scientific discoveries of all time? In no particular order, we present the top 100 in eight different categories:Astronomy - Explore the universe *** Biology - Explore the world around you *** Chemistry - Explore the world under a microscope *** Earth Science - Explore the Earth under your feet *** Evolution - Explore the past *** Genetics - Explore what makes you, you *** Medicine - Explore developments in health *** Physics - Explore how stuff worksVenture beneath our planet's crust for a look at the powerful geological forces that keep life on the move and adapting plate tectonics, earthquakes and super volcanoes.

Earth Sciences1. Earth's Core (1906)Seismologist Richard Oldham determines that earthquake waves move through the central part of the Earth much slower than through the mantle around it. He surmises that the Earth has a core composed of liquid. 2. Earth's Inner Core (1930s)In 1936, Inge Lehmann documents that some seismic waves from deep inside the Earth's core do not pass through, but are reflected back. It becomes clear that the Earth has an inner core consisting of a small, solid iron sphere that is surrounded by a thick outer core composed of liquid iron. 3. Continental Drift (1911)Alfred Wegener proposes that all the continents in the world once formed a single, giant landmass that was eventually split apart in a process called "continental drift." Wegener's evidence consists of the "fit" of South America with Africa, fossil distribution and geological similarities. 4. Seafloor Spreading (1950s – 1960s)Adding his own data on changes in seafloor depth and geology to discoveries of his peers, Harry Hess proposes that Wegener's theory of continental drift is a result of seafloor spreading. He hypothesizes that molten magma from beneath the Earth's crust is oozing up between the plates in the Great Global Rift (now referred to as the Mid-Ocean Ridge). As the hot magma cools, it expands and pushes the plates out from the rift, causing the Atlantic Ocean to get wider over time. 5. Plate Tectonics (1960s)The work of many scientists reveals that the Earth's surface is broken into several interconnected plates of rock. Earth's outermost layer, the lithosphere, is broken into at least seven large, rigid pieces. These plates are moving in different directions and at different speeds (about 1 to 4 inches per year) and are crashing together, pulling apart and sideswiping each other. All the action at plate boundaries produces phenomena such as mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes. 6. Troposphere and Stratosphere (1890s)With the aid of scientific instruments placed on unmanned balloons, Leon Teisserenc de Bort discovers that the atmosphere consists of layers. Bort notices that air temperature decreases steadily up to about seven miles, but remains constant at higher altitudes. After more than 200 balloon experiments, he suggests that the atmosphere is divided into two layers called the "troposphere" and the "stratosphere." 7. Global Warming (late 20th century)A number of scientists see evidence of a warming trend on the Earth's surface and attribute it to a rise in the concentration of "greenhouse gases." Global warming theory states that an increase of the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century can be attributed to humans and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. According to the theory, temperatures will increase further if emissions of these greenhouse gases continue. 8. Cosmic Radiation (1911 onward)In 1912, Victor Hess travels to 17,500 feet in a hot air balloon (without oxygen) and observes that radiation increases with altitude. Further experiments convince him the radiation is coming from space. We now know that the vast majority of cosmic rays are protons, and therefore have a positive electrical charge. 9. Magnetic Field Reversal (1906)Bernard Brunhes discovers that the Earth's magnetic field has changed direction and reversed itself. His paleomagnetic study of clay baked by a Miocene lava flow 13 million years ago provides the evidence. It is nearly 50 years before his discovery is accepted by the scientific community. 10. Geological Change (1830s)Charles Lyell offers proof that the Earth evolved slowly in his multivolume Principles of Geology: An Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface by Reference to Causes Now in Operation, published between 1830 and 1833. In his work, he advocates the then-controversial idea of uniformitarianism — the idea that the Earth was shaped entirely by slow-moving forces acting over a very long period of time. Catastrophism, a geologic idea that uses biblical chronology to date the Earth, was more accepted at the time. 11. Radiometric Dating (1907)Bertram Boltwood discovers how to calculate the age of a rock by measuring the rate of its radioactive decay. His observations and calculations put Earth's age at 2.2 billion years. Although we now think the Earth is nearly twice that age, this number was a dramatic increase over the accepted age at the time. Boltwood's formulas are compatible with several radioactive elements, including carbon-14, which has been used to date historical artifacts. 12. Periodic Ice Ages (1930s)Serbian astrophysicist Miultin Milankovitch develops a theory relating Earth's motion to long-term climate change and ice ages. His mathematical theory of climate uses variations in solar radiation based on season and latitude. His theory posits that cyclical variations in Earth-sun geometry, such as orbit shape and axis angle, result in different levels of solar energy reaching the Earth.

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Standard Deviants Geology

Standard Deviants Geology 1.4 GBRecommended by university professors and teachers nationwide, The Standard Deviants are the perfect resource for academic success. With videos ranging from English Composition to Organic Chemistry, The Standard Deviants’ entertaining and enjoyable teaching style breaks down difficult subjects into a clear, step-by-step formatRecommended by university professors and teachers nationwide, The Standard Deviants are the perfect resource for academic success. The Standard Deviants’ entertaining and enjoyable teaching style breaks down difficult subjects into a clear, step-by-step format. Besides learning the difference between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, this series provides information on plate tectonics, volcanoes, weathering and more!The Standard Deviants provide:A comprehensive tutorial of challenging course conceptsStudy techniques including mnemonics, visual devices and memory buildersQuick reference cards with charts, definitions, formulas and course outlinesAn approachable, off-beat format that builds understanding, confidence and retentionA specialized academic team is created for each subject
The Standard Deviants provide:A comprehensive tutorial of challenging course conceptsStudy techniques including mnemonics, visual devices and memory buildersQuick reference cards with charts, definitions, formulas and course outlinesAn approachable, off-beat format that builds understanding, confidence and retentionA specialized academic team is created for each subject

,"Himalaya to the Sea"

J. Shroder Jr. ,"Himalaya to the Sea"Routledge 1993-12-27 ISBN: 0415066484 PDF Pages: 472 12.4MBPlate tectonic collision, climate oscillation, glacial fluctuation, severe wind and water erosion - all have wrought dramatic change on the landscape of the Western Himalaya, one of the most dynamic and spectacular landscapes on Earth. Study of the region - from the Western Himalaya foothills and lowlands to the Arabian Sea - is of particular value to geology and geomorphology because of the size and frequency of events. That much of South Asia is relatively inaccessible has enhanced the significance of research in Pakistan and adjacent areas. Himalaya to the Sea focuses on the general evolution of landforms in Pakistan but is also an essential guide for predictive, protective and remedial measures to mitigate the natural hazards which plague the region and constrain development. The authors describe regional erosion and sedimentation within the context of topographical evolution; more specifically, they deal with neotectonics, past and present glaciation, general mountain geomorphology and process mechanics, past and present fluvial processes and landforms, wind blown loess deposits, age dates, soils, marine terraces and archaeology. This is the first integrated assessment of the geomorphology and Quaternary evolution of this region, from highlands to ocean. Presenting new research, methodologies and theory, this highly illustrated book also provides the first comprehensive bibliography to this exciting region.

Structural Geology and Personal Computers

Structural Geology and Personal Computers546 pages Pergamon Press Inc; 1st edition (December 1, 1996) ISBN: 0080424309 PDF 45 MbHardbound. This book will help structural geologists keep abreast of rapid changes in work practices resulting from the personal computer revolution. It is organized into six parts: I Computer-Aided Learning; II Microstructural Analysis; III Analysis of Orientation Data; IV Strain and Kinematic Analysis; V Mathematical and Physical Modeling; VI Structural Mapping and GIS. The 45 contributing authors explain how to: set up computer-aided teaching and learning facilities on a low budget; illustrate tectonic strain concepts with a drawing program; integrate multimedia presentations into structural coursework; analyze microstructures with computer-aided microscopy; produce sophisticated stereonets with custom software for both the Mac and IBM PC; evaluate orientation data using a spreadsheet program; model the development of macrostructures and microstructures numerically; integrate structural and geophysical data; and apply PC technology to the production of

Geology and Ecosystems

Geology and EcosystemsSpringer ISBN: 0387292926 2005-11-16 PDF 392 pages 23 Mb This book is the result of an international working group entitled Geology and Ecosystems that was organized by the IUGS commission on Geological Sciences for Environmental Planning (COGEOENVIRONMENT). The aim of the working group is to increase awareness and build methodological principles of ecological geology as a new branch of science. This book includes the analysis of the relationship between the different geological, hydrochemical, hydrogeological, and engineering-geological processes and the processes within surface ecosystems. Modern engineering activity associated with the mining of minerals, excessive groundwater withdrawal, disposal of industrial and domestic liquid wastes (including radioactive wastes) and their impacts on all components of the environment are analyzed, as is the "water factor" impact on ecosystems. It is intended as a professional update for all scientists and professionals with an interest in the Earth's environments and environmental protection.

Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands

H. Leonard Vacher, Terrence M. Quinn, "Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands"Elsevier Publishing Company 1997-12-01 ISBN: 0444815201 966 pages PDF 18 MBHardbound. The Geology and Hydrogeology of Carbonate Islands presents a survey of more than 30 selected islands such as Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Florida Keys, coastal Yucatan, Barbados, the Caymans, Isla de Mona, islands of Polynesia, the Cooks, Guam, Niue, Nauru, Rottnest Island, the Houtman Abrolhos, islands of the Great Barrier Reef and many atolls including Enewetak, Tarawa, Diego Garcia, Mururoa, and the Cocos Islands. The book provides a wealth of observational data and a survey of interpretations on the issues within the intersection of carbonate geology (depositional architecture, diagenetic processes and dolomitization, Cenozoic sea-level history, karstification and blue holes) and island hydrology (distribution of fresh and brackish groundwater, dual-aquifer conceptualizations, modeling of island lenses, water budgets and water resources, effects of climatic variations, island karst, endo-upwelling).
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Precambrian Sedimentary Environments

Wladyslaw Altermann, "Precambrian Sedimentary Environments: A Modern Approach to Ancient Depositional Systems (Special Publication 33 of the IAS) (International Association Of Sedimentologists Series)"Wiley-Blackwell; 1st edition (March 19, 2002) 0632064153 464 pages PDF 14.17 MB
The motivation for this volume came from the idea that the Precambrian is the key, both to the present, and to the understanding of the Earth as a whole. The Precambrian constitutes about 85% of Earth's history, and of that, about 3.75 billion years of Precambrian time, represented by rocks, are accessible to geoscientists. Ancient atmospheric and environmental conditions can be traced back to the time when the Earth was only about 250 million years old. Precambrian rocks supply almost 75% of important mineral resources such as Fe, Mn, Au, Pt and Cr. Many of these elements are associated with sedimentary rocks and some important hydrocarbon, coal and graphite deposits are also hosted by Precambrian rocks.This volume is aimed at geoscientists interested in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and at students of Earth history. It contains review articles discussing Precambrian conditions and case studies from Precambrian shields and successions of North and South America, Australia, Africa, Europe, Asia and India. The introductory papers, written by experts on Precambrian environments, treat comprehensively the application of actualism to the Precambrian, the evolution and influence of life on the sedimentary rock record, the genesis of Banded Iron Formations, the Precambrian sulphur cycle and the significance of Precambrian chemical carbonate precipitates. The case studies include depositional settings and processes in Archean terranes, in Paleoproterozoic sequences, with some emphasis on the lack of vegetation and weathering, and in late Proterozoic sequences, with some emphasis on glacial deposits. The contributions demonstrate that Precambrian sedimentary deposits are commonly similar to their Phanerozoic counterparts in terms of composition, sedimentary processes, and depositional setting, but may differ significantly as a result of lack of vegetation, climatic and biological constraints, composition and circulation of seawater, and the secular involvement of continental crust.

Soils of the Past

Gregory J. Retallack “Soils of the Past" For Dummies 2001-02-15 ISBN: 0632053763 512 pages PDF 29,5 Mb
It has been 10 years since publication of the first edition of Soils of the Past. In that time the subject of paleopedology has grown rapidly, and established itself within the mainstream of geological research.Ancient soils contain vital mineralogical, geochemical, textural, and paleontological information about the continental environments in which they formed. Advances in isotope geochemistry and sequence-stratigraphic models allow more detailed reconstructions of environmental change from paleosols and new insights into diverse topics like atmospheric chemistry, global change, palaeoecology, geobiology and mass extinction.This fully updated second edition of soils of the past gives describes the main types of ancient soil, procedures for their recognition and study, their classification and, most significantly, a wide array of examples of how paleosols have been used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.Soils of the Past is written for advanced undergraduates studying paleopedology as part of a degree in geology, environmental science, or physical geography, and for interested professional earth scientists.


Glacial Geology: Ice Sheets and Landforms

Glacial Geology: Ice Sheets and Landforms, 2nd editionBy Matthew R. BennettPublisher: John Wiley & Sons 400 pages 2009-09 English PDF 16.5MB
The new second edition of "Glacial Geology" provides a modern, comprehensive summary of glacial geology and geomorphology. It is has been thoroughly revised and updated from the original first edition. This book will appeal to all students interested in the landforms and sediments that make up glacial landscapes. The aim of the book is to outline glacial landforms and sediments and to provide the reader with the tools required to interpret glacial landscapes. It describes how glaciers work and how the processes of glacial erosion and deposition which operate within them are recorded in the glacial landscape. The second edition is presented in the same clear and concise format as the first edition, providing detailed explanations that are not cluttered with unnecessary detail. Additions include a new chapter on Glaciations around the Globe, demonstrating the range of glacial environments present on Earth today and a new chapter on Palaeoglaciology, explaining how glacial landforms and sediments are used in ice-sheet reconstructions. Like the original book, text boxes are used throughout to explain key concepts and to introduce students to case study material from the glacial literature. Newly updated sections on Further Reading are also included at the end of each chapter to point the reader towards key references. The book is illustrated throughout with colour photographs and illustrations.


Fault-Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics

Eiichi Fukuyama, "Fault-Zone Properties and Earthquake Rupture Dynamics, Volume 94 (International Geophysics)"Academic Press (April 6, 2009) English 0123744520 300 pages PDF 12.81 MB
The dynamics of the earthquake rupture process are closely related to fault zone properties which the authors have intensively investigated by various observations in the field as well as bylaboratory experiments. These include geological investigation of the active and fossil faults, physical and chemical features obtained by the laboratory experiments, as well as the seismological estimation from seismic waveforms. Earthquake dynamic rupture can now be modeled using numerical simulations on the basis of field and laboratory observations, which should be very useful for understanding earthquake rupture dynamics.

Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History

David Christian "Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History"University of California Press English 2005-02-01 664 pages PDF 27,5 MB
An introduction to a new way of looking at history, from a perspective that stretches from the beginning of time to the present day, Maps of Time is world history on an unprecedented scale. Beginning with the Big Bang, David Christian views the interaction of the natural world with the more recent arrivals in flora and fauna, including human beings.Cosmology, geology, archeology, and population and environmental studies--all figure in David Christian's account, which is an ambitious overview of the emerging field of "Big History." Maps of Time opens with the origins of the universe, the stars and the galaxies, the sun and the solar system, including the earth, and conducts readers through the evolution of the planet before human habitation. It surveys the development of human society from the Paleolithic era through the transition to agriculture, the emergence of cities and states, and the birth of the modern, industrial period right up to intimations of possible futures. Sweeping in scope, finely focused in its minute detail, this riveting account of the known world, from the inception of space-time to the prospects of global warming, lays the groundwork for world history--and Big History--true as never before to its name.

Thermodynamics in Mineral Sciences: An Introduction

Ladislav Cemic - Thermodynamics in Mineral Sciences: An IntroductionSpringer 2005 ISBN: 354024364X Pages: 386 PDF 1.87 MB
The subject of this book are natural systems where thermodynamic processes take place as a result of changes in temperature, pressure and composition. The basic concepts are discussed on low level trying to preserve the mathematical rigor. Calculated examples using data from the mineralogical literature are given to elucidate the difficult and very abstract matter of thermodynamics. The book is aimed for students of geology, mineralogy, material science and all other interested readers who deal with solid matter.

Alfred Wegener: Creator of the Continental Drift Theory

Alfred Wegener: Creator of the Continental Drift Theory (Makers of Modern Science)Lisa Yount ISBN: 0816061742 PDF 177 pages May 2009 5 MB
When German meteorologist Alfred Wegener first proposed his groundbreaking theory of continental displacement, later called continental drift, in 1912, his geologist peers rejected his theory because the field of geology at the turn of the century was based in 18th- and 19th-century observations about the nature of the earth and the planet's development. Wegener's theory of continental drift proposed that the enormous landmasses slowly moved on the earth's surface over millions of years. His idea explained countless observations made about the earth, from how the continents formed, to what causes earthquakes, to how the earth's surface continues to change. An itinerant explorer, Wegener traveled around the world, and he died while on a polar mission in Greenland. It wasn't until decades after his death that the continental drift theory proved fruitful to other scientists in the 20th century. In "Alfred Wegener", learn how this daring adventurer pieced together a theory that later revolutionized the Earth sciences.