segunda-feira, 9 de abril de 2012

Ronald Greeley, James D. Iversen, "Wind as a Geological Process: On Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan "



Ronald Greeley, James D. Iversen, "Wind as a Geological Process: On Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan " C..dge U-ty Press | 1987 | ISBN: 0521359627 | 348 pages | PDF | 64,4 MB


This book gives an account of geological aspects of windblown material. Aeolian processes play an important role in modifying the surface of the Earth, and they are also active on Mars. Additionally, they are thought to occur on Venus and possibly Titan as well. The authors describe the following aspects: wind as a geological process, the aeolian environment, physics of particle motion, aeolian abrasion and erosion; aeolian sand deposits and bedforms, interaction of wind and topography and windblown dust. A particular strength of the book is that it deals with aeolian processes in a planetary context, rather than as a purely terrestrial phenomenon. In so doing, the authors ably demonstrate how we can gain better understanding of the Earth through comparative planetology. This paperback reissue will enable the book to be used as a text for advanced students in planetary science. Special terms are defined when they are first used. There is a glossary and an exhaustive bibliography.
Download



The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology, Volume 2: Folds and Fractures




The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology, Volume 2: Folds and Fractures
Academic Press; 1 edition | February 11, 1987 | ISBN-10: 0125769229 | 391 pages | PDF | 42.3 Mb

Following the same format as the highly successful Volume 1, Volume 2 applies the principles of deformation to the analysis of folds and fractures. There are 13 sessions, each providing 3 hours of practical work and problems. The problems are well-illustrated with photographs and drawings, and the solutions are discussed in detail. All the sessions are drawn from actual geological examples and are extensively illustrated with photographs taken in the field and with micrographs, giving students a feeling for what actually occurs in nature.

The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology, Volume 3




The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology, Volume 3
Academic Press; 3rd edition | October 3, 2000 | ISBN-10: 0125769237 | 1061 pages | PDF | 38.1 Mb

Modern Structural Geology, Volume 3 gives a practical introduction to how mathematical tools (continuum mechanics) can be used to model geological structures (i.e., naturally deformed rocks).

It provides a strong emphasis on the application of mathematics to solving real geological problems.

This is the third volume of a highly successful textbook series. It sets out in detail many fundamental and modern research techniques, some for the first time.

It is richly illustrated with photographs and diagrams of naturally deformed rocks. Very few books in the field contain even a fraction of this illustrative material.

Because of the somewhat complex nature of some of the mathematical techniques, computer methods are sometimes needed to formulate solutions to the problems. These programs are fully listed in BASIC language at the end of the relevant Session, and a disk of these programs suitable for MAC and PC hardware is provided.

Modern Structural Geology, Volume 3 is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying structural geology; the secondary market are mechanical and civil engineers wanting a working knowledge of earth sciences; mathematicians wanting to develop practical applications of continuum mechanics.


* Volumes 1 and 2 are best-sellers and widely adopted
* Mathematical modelling programs included on CD-Rom
* Exercises at the end of each chapter
* Superb photography

George H. Davis, "Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions, 3rd edition"



George H. Davis, "Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions, 3rd edition" W ey | 2011 | ISBN: 0471152315 | 839 pages | PDF | 87,1 MB


Relates the physical and geometric elegance of geologic structures within the Earth's crust and the ways in which these structures reflect the nature and origin of crystal deformation through time. The main thrust is on applications in regional tectonics, exploration geology, active tectonics and geohydrology. Techniques, experiments, and calculations are described in detail, with the purpose of offering active participation and discovery through laboratory and field work.
Download


Charles Darwin as Geologist: The Rede Lecture, Given at the Darwin Centennial Commemoration on 24 June 1909 By Archibald Geikie


Charles Darwin as Geologist: The Rede Lecture, Given at the Darwin Centennial Commemoration on 24 June 1909 By Archibald Geikie
Publisher: ||C||UP' 2009 | 100 Pages | ISBN: 1108002579 | PDF | 1 MB



During his famous Beagle voyage, Darwin collected rocks, fossils and other geological specimens. No previous geologist had amassed such a detailed set of data. He identified raised beaches and remains of marine organisms high above the sea, understanding their significance as evidence of the uprising of landmasses. He also witnessed an earthquake and volcanic eruptions, concluding that both are related to movements of molten rock deep in the Earth. In this 1909 lecture, Sir Archibald Geikie, then President of the Royal Society, outlines Darwin's geological findings and explains how these underpinned his developing ideas. We learn of Darwin's theory of coral reef formation, and his fascination with the activities of earthworms. Finally the lecture considers the importance of Darwin's geological studies in formulating his theory of evolution by natural selection, leading to his masterpiece On the Origin of Species.

Aspects of Tectonic Faulting By W. van der Zee, F.K. Lehner, J.L. Urai



Aspects of Tectonic Faulting By W. van der Zee, F.K. Lehner, J.L. Urai
Publisher: Sp[ring]er 2000 | 226 Pages | ISBN: 3540657088 | PDF | 6 MB



This book provides an overview of modern approaches to the dynamics of tectonic faulting. The contributions were selected from papers which had been presented at a conference organized on the occasion of Georg Mandl's 70th birthday. The understanding of structural geology and the mechanics of tectonic faulting which was always in the center of his interest was substantially advanced by Mandl's work.
Topics covered are: Particle flow modelling, analog modelling techniques, large-scale tectonic models, onset of faulting above evaporites, dynamic triggering of earthquakes, growth of initially segmented fault zones.

Timescales of Magmatic Processes: From Core to Atmosphere By Anthony Dosseto, Simon P. Turner, James A. Van-Orman



Timescales of Magmatic Processes: From Core to Atmosphere By Anthony Dosseto, Simon P. Turner, James A. Van-Orman
Publisher: W[ile]y-Bla[ckw]ell| 2010 | 272 Pages | ISBN: 1444332619 , 1444332600 | PDF | 25 MB



Quantifying the timescales of current geological processes is critical for constraining the physical mechanisms operating on the Earth today. Since the Earth’s origin 4.55 billion years ago magmatic processes have continued to shape the Earth, producing the major reservoirs that exist today (core, mantle, crust, oceans and atmosphere) and promoting their continued evolution. But key questions remain. When did the core form and how quickly? How are magmas produced in the mantle, and how rapidly do they travel towards the surface? How long do magmas reside in the crust, differentiating and interacting with the host rocks to yield the diverse set of igneous rocks we see today? How fast are volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere?
This book addresses these and other questions by reviewing the latest advances in a wide range of Earth Science disciplines: from the measurement of short-lived radionuclides to the study of element diffusion in crystals and numerical modelling of magma behaviour. It will be invaluable reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as igneous petrologists, mineralogists and geochemists involved in the study of igneous rocks and processes.

H.W. Fritz, Andreas Kappler, "Encyclopedia of Geobiology"



H.W. Fritz, Andreas Kappler, "Encyclopedia of Geobiology" Sp.,.er | 2011 | ISBN: 1402092113 | 538 pages | PDF | 39,7 MB


 The interplay between Geology and Biology has shaped the Earth from the early Precambrian, 4 billion years ago. Moving beyond the borders of the classical core disciplines, Geobiology strives to identify chains of cause-and-effect and synergisms between the geo- and the biospheres that have been driving the evolution of life in modern and ancient environments. Combining modern methods, geobiological information can be extracted not only from visible remains of organisms, but also from organic molecules, rock fabrics, minerals, isotopes and other tracers. An understanding of these processes and their signatures reveals enormous applied potentials with respect to issues of environment protection, public health, energy and resource management. The Encyclopedia of Geobiology has been designed to act as a key reference for students, researchers, teachers, and the informed public and to provide basic, but comprehensible knowledge on this rapidly expanding discipline that sits at the interface between modern geo- and biosciences.

 
Download

"Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy" by Sam Boggs



"Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy" by Sam Boggs
Реаrsоn Рrеntice Наll | 2006 | ISBN: 0131547283 9780131547285 | 676 pages | PDF/djvu | 45/21 MB

A concise treatment of the fundamental principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, featuring the important physical, chemical, biological and stratigraphic characteristics of sedimentary rocks. Emphasized are the ways in which the study of sedimentary rocks is used to interpret depositional environments, changes in ancient sea level, and other intriguing aspects of Earth history. Topics include the origin and transport of sedimentary materials; physical properties of sedimentary rocks; composition, classification and diagenesis of sedimentary rocks and principles of stratigraphy and basin analysis.

For individuals interested in one text providing comprehensive coverage of both sedimentology and stratigraphy.

Contents
Preface
Introduction
PART I Origin and Transport of Sedimentary Materials
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 SUBAERI ALWEATHERING PROCESSES
1.3 SUBMARINE WEATHERING PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS
1.4 SO ILS
1.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
2 Transport and Deposition ofSiliciclastic Sediment
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 FUNDAMENTA LS OF FLUID FLOW
2.3 PARTICLE TRANSPORT BY FLUIDS
2.4 PARTICLE TRANSPORT BY SEDIMENT GRAVI TY FLOWS
PART II Physical Properties of Sedimentary Rocks
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 GRAIN SIZE
3.3 PARTICLE SHAPE
3.4 FABRIC
4 Sedimentary Structures
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 KINDS OF PRIMARY SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES
4.3 STRATIFICATION AND BEDFORMS
4.4 BEDDING-P LANE MARKINGS
4.5 OTHER STRUCTURES
4.6 PALEOCURRENT ANALYSIS FROM SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES
PART III Composition, Classification, and Diagenesis of Sedimentary Rocks
5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 SANDSTONES
5.3 CONGLOMERATES
5.4 SHALES (MUDROCKS)
5.5 DIAGENESIS OF SILICICLASTIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
5.6 PROVENANCE SI GNIFICANCE OF MINERAL COMPOSITION
6 Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks
6.1 INTRODUCTION
6.2 CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY
6.3 LIMESTONE TEXTURES
6.4 DOLOMITE TEXTURES
6.5 STRUCTURES IN CARBONATE ROCKS
6.6 CLASSIFICATION OF CARBONATE ROCKS
6.7 ORIGIN OF CARBONATE ROCKS
6.8 DIAGENESIS
7 Other Chemical/Biochemical and Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks
7.1 INT RODUCTION
7.2 EVAPORITES
7.3 SILICEOUS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS (CHERTS)
7.4 IRON-BEARING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
7.5 SEDIMENTARY PHOSPHORITES
7.6 CARBONACEOUS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: COAL, OIL SHALE, BITUMENS
PART IV Depositional Environments
8 Continental (Terrestrial) Environments
8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 FLUVIAL SYSTEMS
8.3 EOLIAN DESERT SYSTEMS
8.4 LACUSTRINE SYSTEMS
8.5 GLACIAL SYSTEMS
9 Marginal-Marine Environments
9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 DELTAIC SYSTEMS
9.3 BEACH AND BARRlER ISLAND SYSTEMS
9.4 ESTUARINE SYSTEMS
9.5 LAGOONAL SY STEMS
9.6 TIDAL-FLAT SYSTEMS
10 Siliciclastic Marine Environments
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 THE SHELF ENVIRONMENT
10.3 THE OCEANIC (DEEP-WATER) ENVIRONMENT
11 Carbonate and Evaporite Environments
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 CARBONATE SHELF (NONREEF ) ENVIRONMEN TS
11.3 SLOPE/B ASIN CARBONATES
11.4 ORGANIC REEF ENVIRONMENTS
11.5 MIXED CARBONATE-SILICICLASTIC SYSTEMS 388
11.6 EVAPORITE ENVIRONMENTS
PART V Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis
12 Lithostratigraphy
12.1 INTRODUCTION
12.2 TYPES OF LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS
12.3 STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONS
12.4 VERTICAL AND LATERAL SUCCESSIONS OF STRATA
12.5 NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS
12.6 CORRELATION OF LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS
13 Seismic, Sequence, and Magnetic Stratigraphy
13.1 INTRODUCTION
13.2 SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY
13.3 SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY
13.4 MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY
14 Biostratigraphy
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 FOSSILS AS A BASIS FOR STRATIGRAPHIC SUBDIVISION
14.3 BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC UNITS
14.4 THE BASIS FOR BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC ZONATION: CHANGES IN ORGANISMS THROUGH TIME
14.5 DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS IN SPACE: PA LEOBIOGEOGRAPHY
14.6 COMBINED EFFECTS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS IN TIME AND SPACE
14.7 BIOCORRELATION
15 Chronostratigraphy and Geologic Time
15.1 INTRODUCTION
15.2 GEOLOGIC TIME UNITS
15.3 THE GEOLOGIC TIME SC ALE
15.4 CHRONOCORRELATION
16 Basin Analysis, Tectonics, and Sedimentation
16.1 INTRODUCTION
16.2 MECHANISMS OF BASIN FORMATION (SUBSIDENCE)
16.3 PLATE TECTONICS AND BASINS
16.4 KINDS OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS
16.5 SEDIMENTARY BASIN FILL
16.6 TECHNIQUES OF BASIN ANALYSIS
16.7 APPLICATIONS OF BASIN ANALYSIS
Appendices
Appendix A Form and Roundness ofSedimentary Particles
Appendix 8 Paleothermometry
Appendix C North American Stratigraphic Code
Appendix D Nomenclature of Global and North American Chronostratigraphic Units
Appendix E Web Sites Pertaining to Sedimentology and Stratigraphy
Bibliography
Index




 
PDF: FPost• | • DepositF

djvu: FPost• | • DepositF

segunda-feira, 26 de março de 2012

The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man: With Remarks on Theories of the Origin of Species by Variation By Charles Lyell




The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man: With Remarks on Theories of the Origin of Species by Variation By Charles Lyell
Publisher: >Cu



Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) is remembered today as much for his profound influence on the young Charles Darwin as for his own work as a geologist: Darwin read the three volumes of his Principles of Geology (1830-3) as they came out, and was greatly interested in Lyell's theory of the huge effects over geological time of an accumulation of tiny, almost unobservable changes. The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man was published in 1863, and went into three editions in that year alone. The work synthesises the then existing evidence for the earliest humans in Europe and North America and - as indicated by its subtitle, With Remarks on Theories of the Origin of Species by Variation - discusses Darwin's theory and 'the bearing of this hypothesis on the different races of mankind and their connection with other parts of the animal kingdom.'

Principles of Geology, Volume 2: An Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface, by Reference to Causes now in Operation By Charles Lyell



Principles of Geology, Volume 2: An Attempt to Explain the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface, by Reference to Causes now in Operation By Charles Lyell
Publisher: C-U==P; 2009 | 356 Pages | ISBN: 110800136X | PDF | 9 MB



In 1830-33, Charles Lyell laid the foundations of evolutionary biology with Principles of Geology, a pioneering book that Charles Darwin took with him on the Beagle. Volume 2 (1832) focuses on plants and animals, and consists of 17 chapters, a comprehensive index and woodcut illustrations of various natural habitats Lyell had observed. The author takes issue with the French biologist Lamarck's theory of the transmutation of species, though Darwin in fact later praised other aspects of Lamarck's work. Lyell examines the connections between the Earth's changing crust and the natural history of many species of birds, insects, mammals and fish. He discusses how wild species physically adapt over time to domestication, the diffusion of plants throughout their specific habitats, geographical distributions of certain types of animals, migratory pattern adaptation due to climate change, hybrid plants, species extinction and how organic deposits, such as moss, on emerging land affect species adaptation.