terça-feira, 20 de abril de 2010

Mesozoic Sub-Continental Lithospheric Thinning under Eastern Asia (Geological Society Special Publication No. 280)


Mesozoic Sub-Continental Lithospheric Thinning under Eastern Asia (Geological Society Special Publication No. 280) Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392250 edition 2007 PDF 352 pages 56,6 mb
The North China craton is the only known place where an Archaean craton with a thick tectospheric root lost half of that root in younger tectonism by processes such as delamination, convection, hydration-weakening, compositional change or some other mechanism. In this volume, authors provide data constraining the geometry and timing of root loss, aimed at understanding why and how continental roots are lost in general. Modelling how often this process may have occurred in the geological past, and how much lithospheric material has been recycled to the convecting mantle through this mechanism, could drastically change our current understanding of crustal growth rates and processes. Possible triggering mechanisms for root loss include collision of the South China (Yangtze) and North China cratons in the Triassic, the India-Asia collision, closure of the Solonker and Monhgol-Okhotsk oceans, Mesozoic subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath eastern China, impingement of mantle plumes, mantle hydration from long-term subduction and several rifting events. In this volume, we link studies of crustal tectonics with investigations aimed at determining the nature of and timing of the formation and loss of the root, in order to better-understand mechanisms of continental root formation, evolution and recycling/removal.

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Biotic Recovery from Mass Extinction Events (Salmon Poetry)


Biotic Recovery from Mass Extinction Events (Salmon Poetry) Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1897799454 edition 1996 PDF 392 pages 55,1 mb
Contains papers by leading authorities on several of the major extinction events of the geological record. The book brings together new data on a wide range of floral and faunal groups. The papers are grouped as general, Palaeozoicevents, Mesozoic events and Cenozoic events. Several of the papers describe the recovery and recolonization processes following the extinction events while others discuss the problems of 'survivor taxa', 'disaster taxa' and 'progenitor species'. The examples chosen come from geological successions in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and the Indian Subcontinent.

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Geohazard in Rocky Costal Areas


Geohazard in Rocky Costal AreasBy C Violante Publisher: Geological Society Of London 2009-09-01 English PDF 216 pages ISBN : 186239282X 12.3 Mb
This Special Publication provides a range of methods and approaches for characterizing and modelling mass-wasting phenomena responsible for land degradation and erosion in rocky coastal areas. Rocky coasts occur in a variety of geological settings with a wide range of morphologies depending on rock type, tectonics and climate. In all these settings, slope instability represents the most important geological process that significantly influences the human use of coastal resources over a range of magnitudes and periods of recurrence.The reported case studies in the volume deal with land-born geological processes that deliver sediment to the coast and open sea at intermittent time intervals, often with catastrophic implications. They include large slope failures on both volcanic and non-volcanic coastal areas, cliff recession and floods of coastal streams from key areas of the Italian peninsula. All these studies seek to establish sea-land correlations based on marine geophysical investigations and field analyses, and to highlight the role of documentary sources in order to recognize geological constraints for hazard assessment in rocky coastal areas.
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Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica - Special Publication no 308


Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica - Special Publication no 308Geological Society Special Publication December 15, 2008 English ISBN: 1862392684 460 pages PDF 15.75 MB
Geological correlations of East Antarctica with adjoining continents have been puzzling geologists ever since the concept of a Gondwana supercontinent surfaced. Despite the paucity of outcrops because of ice cover, difficulty of access and extreme weather, the past 50 years of Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (JARE) has successfully revealed vital elements of the geology of East Antarctica. This volume presents reviews and new research from localities across East Antarctica, especially from Dronning Maud Land to Enderby Land, where the geological record preserves a history that spans the Archaean and Proterozoic. The reviews include extensive bibliographies of results obtained by geologists who participated in the JARE. Comprehensive geological, petrological and geochemical studies, form a platform for future research on the formation and dispersion of Rodinia in the Mesoproterozoic and subsequent assembly of Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic to Early Palaeozoic.

Fracture and In-Situ Stress Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs (Geological Society Special Publication) by Geological Society Publishing


Fracture and In-Situ Stress Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs (Geological Society Special Publication) by Geological Society PublishingPublisher: Geological Society of London Number Of Pages: 216 Publication Date: 2003-01 ISBN-10: 1862391300 PDF 24 Mb
This publication introduces the newly developed, integrated discipline of fracture and in-situ stress characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, through 16 well-illustrated case studies. These cover a wide range of tools, from borehole scale (logs and core) to reservoir scale (e.g. 3-D and 4-D seismic). It also covers surface studies (outcrop and remote sensing). In addition, it addresses the impact of fractures and in-situ stresses on fluid flows and their simulation. The subject that this volume deals with is gaining increasing interest with the advancement of technologies and shifting boundaries of marginal fields into more challenging ground. Fractures and their response to current-day in-situ stresses have become a crucial part of reservoir characterization in deep tight reservoirs. In addition, maturing reservoirs, which were considered as 'conventional' at discovery, are displaying symptoms characteristic of fractures and/or geomechanical contribution. This has lead to the need to delineate the fractures and the stresses in these reservoirs and revise reservoir management accordingly. This volume will be of interest to a broad range of readers from both academic and industrial institutes, who are researching and dealing with hydrocarbon reservoir characterization, simulation and management.
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Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology


Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology Publisher: Cambridge University Press ISBN: 052184875X edition 2006 PDF 206 pages 4,18 mb
Now fully updated to cover recent developments, this book covers the closely related techniques of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) specifically from a geological viewpoint. Topics discussed include: principles of electron-target interactions, electron beam instrumentation, X-ray spectrometry, general principles of SEM image formation, production of X-ray 'maps' showing elemental distributions, procedures for qualitative and quantitative X-ray analysis (both energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive), the use of both 'true' electron microprobes and SEMs fitted with X-ray spectrometers, and practical matters such as sample preparation and treatment of results. Throughout, there is an emphasis on geological aspects not mentioned in similar books aimed at a more general readership. The book avoids unnecessary technical detail in order to be easily accessible, and forms an up-to-date text on EMPA and SEM for geological postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers, as well as those working in industrial laboratories.

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terça-feira, 13 de abril de 2010

Hydrocarbons in Crystalline Rocks" by N. Petford, K. J. W. McCaffrey


Hydrocarbons in Crystalline Rocks" by N. Petford, K. J. W. McCaffreyGeological Society Special Publication, No. 214Geological Society of London 2003 ISBN: 1862391378 237 pages PDF 33 Mb
While oil and gas fields in crystalline basement are still discovered mostly by accident, as shown in this book, such reservoirs can be very prolific, especially if the basement rock is highly faulted or fractured. The chapters in this volume cover a diverse range of topics related broadly to the theme of hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks, and challenge explorationists’ definition of basement rock, which needs to be less narrow and more responsive to new geological ideas.

Magnetic Fabric: Methods and Applications


Magnetic Fabric: Methods and ApplicationsPublisher: Geological Society of London Pages: 551 2005-01-01 ISBN 186239170X PDF 61 MB
Fabric is a ubiquitous and significant feature of geological materials. The processes involved in the formation and deformation of rocks and sediments leave their mark on the orientations of the constituent mineral grains. Petrofabrics thus provide essential keys to understanding the history of geological materials. Magnetic anisotropy is directly related to petrofabric, and has become one of the most rapid, sensitive and widely used tools for its characterization. The relationship between magnetic fabric and petrofabric is complex and depends on various factors including the composition, concentration and grain size of mineral grains. Ongoing research in geological applications is paralleled by studies of the fundamental mineral magnetic phenomena involved.

Owen M. Phillips "Geological Fluid Dynamics: Sub-surface Flow and Reactions"


Owen M. Phillips "Geological Fluid Dynamics: Sub-surface Flow and Reactions"Cambridge University Press English 2009-02-23 ISBN: 0521865557 298 pages PDF 4 MB
This book is the long-awaited successor to Owen Phillips's classic textbook, Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rocks, published in 1991. In the intervening 18 years between the two, significant advances have been made to our understanding of subterranean flow, especially through the vast amount of research into underground storage of nuclear waste and aquifer pollution. This new book integrates and extends these modern ideas and techniques and applies them to the physics and chemistry of sub-surface flows in water-saturated, sandy and rocky media. It describes essential scientific concepts and tools for hydrologists and public health ecologists concerned with present day flow and transport, and also for geologists who interpret present day patterns of mineralization in terms of fluid flow in the distant past. The book is ideal for graduate students and professionals in hydrology, water resources, and aqueous geochemistry.
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R. E. Holdsworth, R. A. Strachan, J. Magloughlin, R. J. Knipe, "The Nature and Tectonic Significance of Fault Zone Weakening"


R. E. Holdsworth, R. A. Strachan, J. Magloughlin, R. J. Knipe, "The Nature and Tectonic Significance of Fault Zone Weakening"Publisher: Geological Society of London 2001-10 ISBN 1862390908 PDF 344 pages 29.2 MB
Many faults appear to form persistent zones of weakness that fundamentally influence the distribution, architecture and movement patterns of crustal-scale deformation and associated process in both continental and oceanic regions. This book brings together papers by an international group of Earth Scientists to discuss a broad range of topics centred upon the controls of fault weakening and the role of such faults during lithosphere deformation. Readership:Academic structural-tectonic geologists, microstructural geologists, rheologists, geophysicists and people studying geodynamics. Also, petroleum geologists, hardrock geologists, mining geologists, hydrogeologists and metamorphic geologists. Suitable for postgraduate students.
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Sedimentary Rocks in the Field (Geological Field Guide) By Maurice E. Tucker


Sedimentary Rocks in the Field (Geological Field Guide) By Maurice E. TuckerPublisher: Wiley 2003 244 Pages ISBN: 0470851236 PDF 8 MB
This handy pocket-sized guide shows how to achieve successful fieldwork on sedimentary rocks, paying particular detail to the precision and accuracy of recording detail. Various sedimentary rock-types, textures and all the basic field techniques required are clearly described.Thoroughly revised to incorporate up-to-date information, this 3rd edition will be of use to all students and professionals with a geological background.Features include:* New sections on safety in the field, the use of GPS in sedimentary studies, core description, fossils as depth indicators and facies models.* Improved illustrations and a new updated layout.

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A. Hallam, "Great Geological Controversies"


A. Hallam, "Great Geological Controversies"Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA 1990 ISBN: 0198582196 PDF 256 pages 11.6 MB
Here is a new edition of a widely acclaimed account of the most celebrated controversies in the history of geology--a book that covers many of the most important ideas that have emerged since the birth of the science. Among the great debates described here are those involving catastrophe theory, uniformitarianism, the discovery of the Ice Age, speculation concerning the age of the earth, and the advent of new ideas on plate tectonics and continental drift. In presenting these key topics, the author opens the fascinating history of geology to a wide audience. Frequently citing original sources, the author gives readers a sense of the colorful and at times immensely entertaining language of scientific discourse. This edition includes a new chapter on the emergence of stratigraphy in the nineteenth century, focusing on controversies surrounding the Cambrian-Silurian and Devonian. Another new chapter reviews the mass extinction theory, which is still hotly debated. Other chapters have been revised to reflect recent developments and changes in the field. Authoritative and highly readable, this unique work will interest all readers interested in the history of science and especially the origin of the prevailing ideas in geology today.

Wolfgang Jacoby, Peter L. Smilde, “Gravity Interpretation: Fundamentals and Application of Gravity Inversion and Geological Interpretation”


Wolfgang Jacoby, Peter L. Smilde, “Gravity Interpretation: Fundamentals and Application of Gravity Inversion and Geological Interpretation” Springer 2009-04 ISBN: 3540853286 396 pages PDF 10,5 MB
This text on gravity methods in geophysics is intended for students and earth scientists of all kinds e.g., geophysicists, geologists, and geodesists. It is structured in 7 chapters covering the basic problems and tasks: data acquisition and analysis; qualitative and quantitative geological interpretation aspects involving the basic theory of gravitation and its potential; methods of integration to solve "forward problems", and the theory of Bayesian inversion with a priori information offering many means of evaluating the results. The ideas are illustrated and documented by many practical examples on scales, from the search of cavities to global geodynamics. Tasks or problems (with solutions) for students to solve are included, plus a guide to related texts and a subject index.

Sustainable Minerals Operations in the Developing World (Geological Society Special Publication No. 250)


Sustainable Minerals Operations in the Developing World (Geological Society Special Publication No. 250)Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862391882 edition 2005 PDF 256 pages 26,7 mb
The sustainable development of minerals, which are non-renewable resources, is a major challenge in today’s world. In this regard the true definition of "sustainability" is a debating point in itself: can such a concept exist with respect to non-renewable resources? Perhaps the ideal sustainability model is one that minimizes negative environmental impact and maximizes benefits to society, the economy and regional/national development. Developed and near-developed economies rely for commodity supplies on developing countries where major mining operations are often a mainstay of the domestic economy. Limited environmental regulation and low wages lead to charges of exploitation. Also, large numbers of people have no alternative to living by informal, often dangerous, "artisanal" mining. This Special Publication gives examples from developing countries from all scales of mineral extraction. The volume reviews environmental, economic, health and social problems and highlights the need to solve these before sustainability can be achieved. The better solutions require mutual understanding, through full involvement of all stakeholders, education, training and investment so that small-scale and artisanal mines can grow into well-managed operations. At larger scales, most major international mining companies have now improved their practices and are monitoring their progress, although there is no room for complacency in this rapidly changing area.
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Function of Soils for Human Societies and the Environment (Geological Society Special Publication No. 266)


Function of Soils for Human Societies and the Environment (Geological Society Special Publication No. 266)Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392072 edition 2007 PDF 208 pages 23,6 mb
Earth sciences are becoming ever more concerned with how their disciplines, their research and teaching, need to become directly related to environmental and social concerns. The biology of the surface layers and at depth is increasingly important in the geosciences. A knowledge of biological and physical-chemical functions in terrestrial ecosystems (such as biomass production, filtering, buffering and transformation, water routing, and maintenance of biodiversity) that are studied in soil science provides a background for Earth sciences. The papers in this volume address issues of soil formation, soil management, soil protection and the role of biodiversity that must be considered for a sustainable soil use. The papers are aimed at geoscientists in the broadest sense, and others concerned with soil use who will also find chapters relevant to their interests. Soils knowledge used within other Earth sciences is essential for maintaining healthy ecosystems, for the solutions of problems in environmental quality and for sustainable use of soils by humans.
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Economic and Palaeoceanographic Significance of Contourite Deposits (Geological Society Special Publication No. 276)


Economic and Palaeoceanographic Significance of Contourite Deposits (Geological Society Special Publication No. 276)Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392269 edition 2007 PDF 360 pages 56,1 mb
There has lately been a growth in the number and level of studies of contourite deposits. Most recent studies of contourites have two major lines of interest. One, propelled by the oil industry's continuous move into increasingly deep waters, concerns their economic significance. The other involves the stratigraphic/ palaeoceanographic record of ocean circulation changes imprinted on contourite deposits that can be a key to understanding better the climate ocean connection. The application of many different theoretical, experimental and empirical resources provided by geophysics, sedimentology, geochemistry, petrology, scale modeling and field geology are used in the 16 papers of this volume, proposing answers to those two main aspects. The papers are subdivided into two major categories (economic interest and stratigraphic/palaeoceanographic significance), with case studies ranging from well-documented drifts to new examples of modern and fossil series, involving a large diversity of geographic and physiographic scenarios worldwide.
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Tectonic Aspects of the Alpine-Dinaride-Carpathian System (Geological Society Special Publication No. 298)


Tectonic Aspects of the Alpine-Dinaride-Carpathian System (Geological Society Special Publication No. 298) Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392528 edition 2008 PDF 512 pages 22,2 mb
The Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides form a complex, highly curved and strongly coupled orogenic system. Motions of the European and Adriatic plates gave birth to a number of 'oceans' and microplates that led to several distinct stages of collision. Although the Alps serve as a classical example of collisional orogens, it becomes clearer that substantial questions on their evolution can only be answered in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Our understanding of the geodynamic evolution of the Alpine-Dinaride-Carpathian System has substantially improved and will continue to develop; this is thanks to collaboration between eastern and western Europe, but also due to the application of new methods and the launch of research initiatives.
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domingo, 11 de abril de 2010

The Gregory Rift Valley and Neogene-Recent Volcanoes of Northern Tanzania - Memoir no 33


The Gregory Rift Valley and Neogene-Recent Volcanoes of Northern Tanzania - Memoir no 33
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862392676 | edition 2009 | PDF | 112 pages | 3,8 mb

The structure and volcanic activity of the northern Tanzania sector of the Gregory Rift Valley have hitherto been less well described than those in Ethiopia and Kenya. This book focuses on northern Tanzania where, although the volcanic area is smaller than those to the north, there are major features such as Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain on the African continent; Ngorongoro, one of the largest calderas on Earth; and Oldoinyo Lengai, the world's only active carbonatite volcano. Following an account of the discovery and early exploration of the rift valley, there are descriptions of the individual volcanoes. These are set within the context of the regional geology and geophysics of the rift valley, and in relation to the structural evolution of the rift and its associated sedimentary basins which include Olduvai, an important site in the history of human evolution The volume concludes with a discussion of the volcanism as related to the plume-related African Superswell.

Eric Bird, "Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms"


Eric Bird, "Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms"
Springer | 2010 | ISBN: 1402086385 | 1498 pages | PDF | 175 MB

This unique richly-illustrated account of the landforms and geology of the world’s coasts, presented in a country-by-country (state-by-state) sequence, assembles a vast amount of data and images of an endangered and increasingly populated and developed landform. An international panel of 138 coastal experts provides information on “what is where” on each sector of coast, together with explanations of the landforms, their evolution and the changes taking place on them. As well as providing details on the coastal features of each country (state or county) the compendium can be used to determine the extent of particular features along the world’s coasts and to investigate comparisons and contrasts between various world regions. With more than 1440 color illustrations and photos, it is particularly useful as a source of information prior to researching or just visiting a sector of coast. References are provided to the current literature on coastal evolution and coastline changes.




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In the Blink of an Eye


In the Blink of an Eye
Publisher: Basic Books | ISBN: 0738206075 | edition 2003 | PDF | 352 pages | 12 mb

The Cambrian Explosion is universally referred to as biology's "Big Bang." About 550 million years ago, there was literally an explosion of life forms, as all the major animal groups suddenly and dramatically appeared. Why did it happen this way? Why didn't these creatures continue the slow, plodding pace ofevolution, appearing only very gradually in the fossil record? Although several books have been written about this surprising event, none have explained why it occurred. Indeed, none were able to.Here, for the first time, Oxford zoologist Andrew Parker reveals his theory of this great flourishing of life. Parker's "Light Switch Theory" holds that it was the development of vision in primitive animals that caused the explosion. Precambrian creatures were unable to see, making it impossible to find friend or foe. With the evolution of the eye, the size, shape, color, and behavior of animals was suddenly revealed for the first time. Once the lights were "turned on," all animals had to either adapt or die, and in a geological instant, the world became a very different place. A controversial theory but one that is quickly gaining ground, theLight Switch Theory promises to revolutionize our understanding of life and light. Drawing on evidence not just from biology but also from geology, physics, chemistry, history, and art, In the Blink of an Eye is the fascinating story of a young scientist's intellectual journey, and a celebration of the scientific method.

New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis (Geological Society Special Publication No. 267)


New Techniques in Sediment Core Analysis (Geological Society Special Publication No. 267)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862392102 | edition 2006 | PDF | 272 pages | 65,4 mb

Marine sediment cores are the fundamental data source for information on seabed character, depositional history and environmental change. They provide raw data for a wide range of research including studies of climate change, palaeoceanography, slope stability, oil exploration, pollution assessment and control, seafloor survey for laying cables, pipelines and construction of seafloor structures. During the last three decades, a varied suite of new technologies have been developed to analyse cores, often non-destructively, to produce high-quality, closely spaced, co-located downcore measurements. These techniques can characterize sediment physical properties, geochemistry and composition in unprecedented detail. Palaeoenvironmentally significant proxies can now be logged at decadal, and in some cases, annual or sub-annual scales, allowing highly detailed insights into climatic history and associated environmental change. These advances have had a profound effect on many aspects of the Earth sciences and our understanding of the Earth's history. In this volume, recent advances in analytical and logging technology and their application to the analysis of sediment cores are presented. Developments in providing access to core data and associated datasets, and advances in data mining technology in order to integrate and interpret new and legacy datasets within the wider context of seafloor studies are also discussed.

Devonian Events and Correlations : Special Publication no 278 (Geological Society Special Publication)


Devonian Events and Correlations : Special Publication no 278 (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862392226 | edition 2007 | PDF | 280 pages | 8,2 mb

The Devonian was a peculiar period, characterized by simplified plate tectonic configurations, climatic overheating and widely flooded continents. The bloom of fishes and ammonoids, extensive reef complexes, and the conquest of land indicate major biosphere innovations, punctuated by many global events, including two of the biggest mass extinctions. The Devonian was the first system for which subdivisions were formally defined. This was achieved by significant advances in pelagic biostratigraphy. The chronostratigraphic framework and interdisciplinary techniques allow us to correlate intervals or sudden events across facies boundaries, in order to reconstruct the sedimentary and evolutionary history of the system with highest precision. This volume honors the lifetime stratigraphic achievements of Michael Robert House (1930-2002). Based on case studies from Europe, North Africa and North America, it shows how the combination of biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and event stratigraphy can contribute to a much deeper understanding of both regional and global environmental change.

Evaporites through Space and Time - Special Publication no 285 (Geological Society Special Publication)


Evaporites through Space and Time - Special Publication no 285 (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862392323 | edition 2007 | PDF | 470 pages | 17,6 mb

This book is an exploration of varying approaches to the study of the deposition, diagenesis and stratigraphy of evaporites. The volume includes papers from chemical modellers, who work on the basis of geochemical representations of the formative water bodies, and from basin-wide depositional-stratigraphical modellers, who propose depositional scenarios that are fitted to individual basinal pictures. Until now there have been only a few studies of evaporite formation that explain the characteristic features we observe in the real rock record. This volume is a collection of relevant papers in which these features are integrated in a realistic manner, based on our new understanding of saline water bodies, to the diverse tectonic, chemical and depositional constraints of their individual basins. In additional there are several review articles that offer oversight and extensive referencing of basins worthy of further study. This book is a valuable resource for sedimentologists and stratigraphers looking for an up-to-date reference on evaporite deposits.

Extending a Continent: Architecture, Rheology and Heat Budget (Geological Society Special Publication)


Extending a Continent: Architecture, Rheology and Heat Budget (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society Of London | ISBN: 1862392846 | edition 2009 | PDF | 272 pages | 9 mb

Over the last three decades, there has been a growing appreciation of the role of extensional tectonics in convergent orogens. The opening contribution, by Brian Wernicke, provides a flavour of how this detachment era has changed our views on tectonometamorphic relationships in mountain belts. It gives a historic view of how our ideas about large-scale tectonic contacts in mountain belts have changed over the years. Wernicke concludes that controversy still persists over the existence and mechanics of slip on shallowly dipping extensional detachments. However, incontrovertible field evidence shows that slip on shallowly dipping extensional faults occurs in nature. The other papers provide a mix of new, innovative and controversial ideas that may help to solve the mechanical paradox on slip on shallowly dipping extensional detachments and quantitative case studies from New Zealand, the Aegean extensional province, the Alps and Finland.

Geological Processes on Continental Margins: Sedimentation, Mass- Wasting And Stability


Geological Processes on Continental Margins: Sedimentation, Mass- Wasting And Stability
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1897799977 | edition 1998 | PDF | 355 pages | 61,7 mb

There has recently been a growth in the level of study of continental margins. Apart from increased scientific interest, studies of continental margins have now taken on a much higher commercial profile, largely because of the oil industry's move off the shelf into increasingly deep waters world-wide. The variation and disturbance of sediments on slopes make them ideal areas for the generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons. It is thought that in ten years' time as much as 25% of oil will be extracted from deep-water fields. An understanding of continental margin processes is therefore becoming crucial to the safe development of deep-water oilfields. The papers in this volume thus have considerable actual or potential commercial value.

Submarine Slope Systems: Processes and Products (Geological Society Special Publication)


Submarine Slope Systems: Processes and Products (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862391777 | edition 2005 | PDF | 232 pages | 43,2 mb

Submarine slopes provide the critical link between shallow-water and deep-water sedimentary environments. They accumulate a sensitive record of sediment supply, accommodation creation/destruction, and tectonic processes during basin filling. There is a complex stratigraphic response to the interplay between parameters that control the evolution of submarine slope systems, e.g. slope gradient, topographic complexity, sediment flux and calibre, base-level change, tectonic setting, and post-depositional sediment remobilization processes. The increased understanding of submarine slope systems has been driven partly by the discovery of large hydrocarbon fields in morphologically complex slope settings, such as the Gulf of Mexico and offshore West Africa, and has led to detailed case studies and improved generic models for their evolution.

Continental Tectonics (Geological Society Special Publication)


Continental Tectonics (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862390517 | edition 1999 | PDF | 300 pages | 30,2 mb

The evolution of oceanic plates is very well described by plate tectonic theory, but the study of continental tectonics is more complicated. Continental plates have a different rheology, a greater mean age, a higher heat productivity, and are more heterogeneous in composition. An understanding of continental tectonics requires, therefore, that these effects upon rigid plate behaviour be taken into account. This book brings together a series of papers which explore various aspects of the deformation of continental lithosphere, covering different tectonic settings from the Palaeozoic to the present day. These include the processes of terrane accretion and juxtaposition, the exhumation of high-pressure terrains, and mechanisms of crustal extension and rifting. The book will be of general interest to a broad audience of earth scientists concerned with global tectonics, continental growth processes, and the deformation of the continents during collision, exhumation and extension.

L. Lonergan "Fractured Reservoirs - Special Publication no 270(Geological Society Special Publication)"


L. Lonergan "Fractured Reservoirs - Special Publication no 270(Geological Society Special Publication)"
Geological Society of London | English | 2007-04-10 | ISBN: 1862392137 | 296 pages | PDF | 50,6 MB


Fractured reservoirs contain a significant proportion of the global hydrocarbon reserves; however, they commonly exhibit unpredictable and extreme production behaviour. To develop such reservoirs it is necessary to obtain the best understanding possible of the fracture network and its impact on the fluid flow within the reservoir, using the full range of geoscience and engineering datasets available at all scales. This book presents an overview of current techniques and the latest technologies used to understand and exploit fractured reservoirs. The contributions are organized into sections on outcrop analogues, the application of geophysical techniques for fracture detection and imaging, numerical and analogue modelling and case studies from fields in the Middle East, Europe and North America. A number of the case studies also consider ways of assessing uncertainties in fracture geometry description and the implications for effective reservoir management.


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Structurally Complex Reservoirs - Special Publication no 292 (Geological Society Special Publication)


Structurally Complex Reservoirs - Special Publication no 292 (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862392412 | edition 2008 | PDF | 496 pages | 18,9 mb

Structurally complex reservoirs form a distinct class of reservoir in which fault arrays and fracture networks, in particular, exert an overriding control on petroleum trapping and production behaviour. With modern exploration and production portfolios now commonly held in geologically complex settings, there is an increasing technical challenge to find new prospects and to extract remaining hydrocarbons from these reservoirs. This volume reviews our current understanding and ability to model the complex distribution and behaviour of fault and fracture networks, highlighting their fluid compartmentalizing effects and storagetransmissivity characteristics, and outlining approaches for predicting the dynamic fluid flow and geomechanical behaviour of these reservoirs.

Fractal Analysis for Natural Hazards - Special Publication No 261 (Geological Society Special Publication)


Fractal Analysis for Natural Hazards - Special Publication No 261 (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862392013 | edition 2006 | PDF | 184 pages | 32,1 mb

In the Earth Sciences, the concept of fractals and scale invariance is well-recognized in many natural objects. However, the use of fractals for spatial and temporal analyses of natural hazards has been less used (and accepted) in the Earth Sciences. This book brings together twelve contributions that emphasize the role of fractal analyses in natural hazard research, including landslides, wildfires, floods, catastrophic rock fractures and earthquakes. A wide variety of spatial and temporal fractal-related approaches and techniques are applied to 'natural' data, experimental data, and computer simulations. These approaches include probabilistic hazard analysis, cellular-automata models, spatialanalyses , temporal variability, prediction, and self-organizing behaviour. The main aims of this volume are to present current research on fractalanalyses as applied to natural hazards, and to stimulate the curiosity of advanced Earth Science students and researchers in the use of fractals analyses for the better understanding of natural hazards.

Four Centuries of Geological Travel: The Search for Knowledge on Foot, Bicycle, Sledge and Camel


Four Centuries of Geological Travel: The Search for Knowledge on Foot, Bicycle, Sledge and Camel
Publisher: The Geological Society Of London | ISBN: 186239234X | edition 2007 | PDF | 424 pages | 11,1 mb

In the last four centuries geologists have traversed the globe, searching for economically important materials or simply to satisfy their intellectual curiosity. Geologists have often been at the vanguard of scientific exploration.
The microscopist Robert Hooke explored the Isle of Wight, and Charles Darwin the Cape Verde islands and parts of South America. The volcanic wonders of Italy and central France attracted native and foreign visitors including Lyell and Murchison. The Tyrrell brothers faced great hardship in northern Canada, as did the actor and mineralogist Charles Lewis Giesecke in Greenland. The development of Sydney, Australia depended on finding limestone for building. French geologists relied on camels in the Sahara, while Grenville Cole trusted his tricycle to carry him across Europe.

Max Wolfsberg, W. Alexander Van Hook, Piotr Paneth, Luís Paulo N. Rebelo "Isotope Effects: in the Chemical, Geological, and Bio Sciences"


Max Wolfsberg, W. Alexander Van Hook, Piotr Paneth, Luís Paulo N. Rebelo "Isotope Effects: in the Chemical, Geological, and Bio Sciences"
Springer | English | 2010-02-01 | ISBN: 9048122643 | 466 pages | PDF | 7,5 MB


As the title suggests, Isotope Effects in the Chemical, Geological and Bio Sciences deals with differences in the properties of isotopically substituted molecules, such as differences in the chemical and physical properties of water and the heavy waters. Since the various fields in which isotope effects are applied do not only share fundamental principles but also experimental techniques, this book includes a discussion of experimental apparatus and experimental techniques.

Isotope Effects in the Chemical, Geological and Bio Sciences is an educational monograph addressed to graduate students and others undertaking isotope effect research. The fundamental principles needed to understand isotope effects are presented in appropriate detail. While it is true that these principles are more familiar to students of physical chemistry and some background in physical chemistry is recommended, the text provides enough detail to make the book an asset to students in organic and biochemistry, and geochemistry.


Roland Pusch, "Geological Storage of Highly Radioactive Waste: Current Concepts and Plans for Radioactive Waste Disposal"


Roland Pusch, "Geological Storage of Highly Radioactive Waste: Current Concepts and Plans for Radioactive Waste Disposal"
Springer; 1 edition (November 17, 2008) | English | 3540773320 | 379 pages | PDF | 11.46 MB

The book describes and assesses current concepts for long-term disposal of highly radioactive waste. Different types of rock are discussed and assessed with respect to practical difficulties in construction of a repository, and the efficiency in isolating radioactive waste. Safety matters are most important and are treated in the respective chapters and in a final, conclusive chapter. Cost issues and related quality matters are discussed for the case of constructing a virgin repository and repositories in the form of converted abandoned mines.

200 Years of British Hydrogeology (Geological Society Special Publication) By J D Mather


200 Years of British Hydrogeology (Geological Society Special Publication)
By J D Mather

Publisher: Geological Society of London | 2004 | 393 Pages | ISBN: 1862391556 | PDF | 49.80 MB

The collection of papers in this volume records the development of hydrogeology in Britain over the last 200 years. Following the application, by William Smith, of stratigraphic principles to the sinking of wells, Victorian engineers and scientists established groundwater as a major contributor to public water supplies. In the twentieth century, the development of groundwater continued rapidly, controlled by an ever-changing regulatory regime. The 25 papers in this volume review the progress which has been made, and the lives and work of some of those who were intimately involved.


D.R. Oldroyd, "Earth, Water, Ice and Fire: Two Hundred Years of Geological Research in the English Lake District"


D.R. Oldroyd, "Earth, Water, Ice and Fire: Two Hundred Years of Geological Research in the English Lake District"
Geological Society Publishing House | 2003 | ISBN: 1862391076 | 320 pages | PDF | 56,7 MB






sexta-feira, 9 de abril de 2010

P. Jospeh, Deep-Water Sedimentation in the Alpine Basie of SE France (Geological Society Special Publication) (No. 221) [ILLUSTRATED]

P. Jospeh, Deep-Water Sedimentation in the Alpine Basie of SE France (Geological Society Special Publication) (No. 221) [ILLUSTRATED]
Geological Society of London | 2004 | ISBN 1862391483 | 484 Pages | 70 MB


This volume offers a multidisciplinary overview and draws up the 'state-of-the-art' of scientific knowledge on this influential turbidite system. Complementary aspects are covered, from structural geology, sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy, to modelling of sedimentary processes and architectures, geochemistry, reservoir characterization, seismic modelling and uses as analogues for deep-marine hydrocarbon fields.



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Norman Herz, Ervan G. Garrison, "Geological Methods for Archaeology"


Norman Herz, Ervan G. Garrison, "Geological Methods for Archaeology"
Oxford University Press, USA | 1997 | ISBN: 0195090241 | 352 pages | PDF | 24,1 MB

This book discusses the application of geological methods and theory to archaeology. Written as a survey text covering appropriate methods and techniques taken from geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and geochronology, it shows the student the practicality and importance of each technique's use in solving archaeological problems. Specific techniques are illustrated by practical results obtained from the authors' use on archaeological digs.
Review
"Herz and Garrison (p viii) state that the purpose of their book . . . is to 'show archaeologists the many ways that geological sciences can help solve their problems.' The authors divide their book into four major sections with multiple chapters in each section. Part I, 'The Archaeological Site and Its Environment,' presents a discussion of geomorphology, sediments, and soils; Part II, 'Dating Techniques,' covers chemical, radioactive, and other methods of dating; Part III, 'Site Exploration,' addresses geophysical and geochemical applications to archaeology; and Part IV, 'Artifact Analysis,' offers a discussion of the analysis of the raw materials used to manufacture artifacts and features."--Geoarchaeology





History of Palaeobotany: Selected Essays (Geological Society Special Publication) By C. V. Burek, R. Wilding

History of Palaeobotany: Selected Essays (Geological Society Special Publication) By C. V. Burek, R. Wilding
Publisher Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862391742 | edition 2005 | PDF | 304 pages | 27,5 mb


Often regarded as the Cinderella of palaeontological studies, palaeobotany has a history that contains some fascinating insights into scientific endeavour, especially by palaeontologists who were perusing a personal interest rather than a career. The problems of maintaining research facilities in universities, especially in the modern era, are described and reveal a noticeable absence of a national UK strategy to preserve centres of excellence in an avowedly specialist area. Accounts of some of the pioneers demonstrate the importance of collaboration between taxonomists and illustrators. The importance of palaeobotany in the rise of geoconservation is outlined, as well as the significant and influential role of women in the discipline. Although this volume has a predominantly UK focus, two very interesting studies outline the history of palaeobotanical work in Argentina and China.



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Patricia Vickers-Rich, "The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota - Special Publication no 286 (Geological Society Special Publication)".


Patricia Vickers-Rich, "The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota - Special Publication no 286 (Geological Society Special Publication)".
Publisher: Geological Society of London | english | ISBN: 1862392331 | edition: 2007 | PDF | 470 Pages | 20 Mb

The Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic was a time punctuated by a series of significant events in Earth history. Glaciations of global scale wracked the planet, interfingered with dramatic changes in oceanic and atmospheric chemistry and marked changes in continental configuration. It was during these dynamic and 'weedy' times that metazoans first appeared, diversified, culminating in the appearance of hard tissue skeletons and deep 'farming' of the marine substrate, in late Proterozoic and first few millions of years of the Phanerozoic. This book is the culmination of two symposia of UNESCO International Geological Correlation Project 493, one in Prato (Italy) in 2004, the second in Kyoto (Japan) in 2006. Both dealt specifically with the precise timing of physical events and teasing out of the effects which these changing environments, climates, global chemistry and palaeogeography had on the development and diversification of animals, culminating in the spectacular Ediacaran/Vendian faunas of the late Precambrian.

A. C. Morton, Seldon P. Todd, P. D. W. Haughton, "Developments in Sedimentary Provenance Studies (Geological Society Special Publication)"

A. C. Morton, Seldon P. Todd, P. D. W. Haughton, "Developments in Sedimentary Provenance Studies (Geological Society Special Publication)"
Geological Society of London | English | 1991 | ISBN: 0903317567 | 370 pages | PDF | 35 MB

The study of sedimentary provenance interfaces several of themainstream geological disciplines (mineralogy, geochemistry,geochronology, sedimentology, igneous and metamorphic petrology).Its remit includes the location and nature of sediment sourceareas, the pathways by which sediment is transferred from sourceto basin of deposition, and the factors that influence the compositionof sedimentary rocks (e.g. relief, climate, tectonic setting).Materials subject to study are as diverse as recent muds inthe Mississipi River basin (Potter et al. 1975), Archaean shales(McLennan et al. 1983), and soils on the Moon (Basu et al. 1988).
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Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology - Special Publication No. 265 (Geological Society Special Publication)


Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology - Special Publication No. 265 (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862392064 | edition 2006 | PDF | 352 pages | 35,8 mb

During the Permian, the single supercontinent Pangaea stretched from pole to pole. Early Permian glacial deposits are found in southern Gondwana. Along the sutures of Pangaea, mountain ranges towered over vast tropical lowlands. Interior areas included dry deserts where dune sands accumulated. Gypsum and halite beds document the evaporation of hot, shallow seas that formed the most extensive salt deposits known in thegeological record. The Permian Period (251 to 299 Ma) encompasses nine ages (stages) arranged into three epochs (series). Most of the Permian marine timescale has been defined by global stratotype sections and points for the stage boundaries. This volume presents new data regarding the biostratigraphy and biochronology of the non-marinePermian and provides a basis for temporally ordering Permian geological and biotic history on land, and correlating that history to events in the marine realm.

segunda-feira, 5 de abril de 2010

Coastal Chalk Cliff Instability (Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication) (No. 20)


Coastal Chalk Cliff Instability (Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication) (No. 20)Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862391505 2006-01-30 PDF 173 pages 7 Mb
Most of the rocky coastlines around the world are subject to active erosion processes. Because of the growing hazard to local communities from coastal cliff retreat, it is necessary to investigate where, when and how cliffs collapse. The results of these studies are vital for the planners and local authorities responsible for safety and access to cliffs and beaches.This volume focuses on the coastal chalk cliffs of the English Channel, where a multidisciplinary approach has been used to understand active coastal cliff recession. The book is organized around three main themes: the geological factors controlling cliff instability, the marine parameters influencing coastal erosion and the use of some new tools for hazard assessments. This book will be of use to academics and professionals working on rocky shores, with an interest in sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, tectonics, geomorphology, engineering geology, coastal engineering and GIS.

Basic Geological Mapping


Basic Geological MappingWiley ISBN: 047084986X January 16, 2004 English PDF 196 pages 3.37 Mb
Geological mapping cannot be taught by lectures or in a laboratory, it must be learnt in the field. Now in its fourth edition, this is a basic guide to field techniques in mapping geology. Concise and pocket sized so that it can be carried in the field for instant reference.

Dating and Duration of Fluid Flow and Fluid-Rock Interaction (Geological Society Special Publication No. 144)


Dating and Duration of Fluid Flow and Fluid-Rock Interaction (Geological Society Special Publication No. 144)Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862390193 edition 1998 PDF 300 pages 61,6 mb
Fluid flow is fundamental to many geological processes, including the development of natural resources of hydrocarbons, ore deposits and water. Modelling of these processes requires information on the timing of fluid flow events and the interaction of fluids with surrounding rocks. In addition to isotopic methods, a diversity of approaches has been developed to assess the timing of events, including palaeomagnetism, fission track analysis and fluid inclusion studies. Many techniques also provide information on the duration of fluid flow events.The papers in this volume represent the range of approaches to determine the dating and duration of fluid flow events and fluid-rock interaction.The first overview of methods of dating fluid flow; examples of commercial application of dating methods; explanations of methodology; suitable for advanced teaching and with extensive bibliographies. Readership: This volume will be of interest to geologists in the hydrocarbon and minerals industries and in academia, and to geochemists and hydrogeologists.

Geological Prior Information: Informing Science and Engineering


Geological Prior Information: Informing Science and EngineeringPublisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862391718 edition 2005 PDF 229 pages 27,7 mb
When faced with a scientific problem, researchers usually draw on both existing pertinent knowledge as well as collecting new data in order to construct an answer. Geological prior information is the term used to describe all previously existing knowledge of a geological nature. Examples of such information include field interpretations, process models, expert judgments and common assumptions, together with the uncertainties associated with each.

Recent Advances in Lower Carboniferous Geology (Geological Society Special Publication No. 107)


Recent Advances in Lower Carboniferous Geology (Geological Society Special Publication No. 107)Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1897799586 edition 1996 PDF 472 pages 69,9 mb
Rocks of Lower Carboniferous age are widely developed across Europe. Apart from their instrinsic geological interest, they are hosts to major Zn-Pb-Cu-Ba deposits in Ireland and Au-FeS2 deposits in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Further, the Upper Palaeozoic rocks of Europe are increasingly becoming the target of oil and gas exploration.This book brings together in one volume advances over the last decade in several specialist subdisciplines of geology.
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Imaging, Mapping and Modelling Continental Lithosphere Extension and Breakup (Geological Society Special Publication No. 282)


Imaging, Mapping and Modelling Continental Lithosphere Extension and Breakup (Geological Society Special Publication No. 282) Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392285 edition 2007 PDF 488 pages 51,9 mb
This book summarizes our present understanding of the formation of passive continental margins and their oceancontinent transitions. It outlines the geological, geophysical and petrological observations that characterize extensional systems, and how such observations can guide and constrain dynamic and kinematic models of continental lithosphere extension, break-up and the inception of organized seafloor spreading. The book focuses on imaging, mapping and modelling lithospheric extensional systems, at both the regional scale using dynamic models to the local scale of individual basins using kinematic models, with an emphasis on capturing the extensional history of the Iberia and Newfoundland margins. The results from a number of other extensional regimes are presented to provide comparisons with the North Atlantic studies; these range from the Tethyan realm and the northern Red Sea to the western and southern Australian margins, the Basin and Range Province, and the Woodlark basin of Papua New Guinea. All of these field studies, combined with lessons learnt from the modelling, are used to address fundamental questions about the extreme deformation of continental lithosphere.
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