domingo, 17 de outubro de 2010

Shun-ichiro Karato, "Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth"

Shun-ichiro Karato, "Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth"
Cambridge University Press; illustrated edition (March 10, 2008) | English | 0521844045 | 474 pages | PDF | 7.37 MB

Much of the recent progress in the solid earth sciences is based on interpretation of a range of geophysical and geological observations in terms of the properties and deformation of earth materials. This graduate textbook presents a comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way covering elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. Advanced discussions on current debates are also included to bring readers to the cutting-edge of science in this interdisciplinary area. This textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid Earth, and includes review questions with solutions so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in many fields including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.
A comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid earth geophysics and geology, this textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid earth. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.

"Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, Second Edition" by Sam Boggs, Jr.

"Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, Second Edition" by Sam Boggs, Jr.
Cambridge University Press | 2009 | ISBN: 0521897165 | 612 pages | PDF | 15 Mb

This Second Edition maintains the fundamental structure of the original book, and presents a comprehensive treatment of sedimentary petrography and petrology. It has been thoroughly updated to include new concepts and ideas, and cutting-edge techniques such as cathodoluminescence imaging of sedimentary rocks and backscattered electron microscopy.

Numerous photographs and diagrams illustrate characteristic features while an extensive and up-to-date reference list provides a useful starting point for additional literature research.

This textbook is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in sedimentary petrology. It is also a key reference for researchers and professional petroleum geoscientists wanting to develop an understanding of the petrologic characteristics of sedimentary rocks and their geological significance.

Table of Contents

Part I. Principles:
1. Origin, classification and occurrence of sedimentary rocks;

Part II. Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks:
2. Sedimentary textures;
3. Sedimentary structures;
4. Sandstones;
5. Conglomerates;
6. Mudstones and shales;
7. Provenance of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks;
8. Diagenesis of sandstones and shales;

Part III. Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks:
9. Limestones;
10. Dolomites;
11. Diagenesis of carbonate rocks;

Part IV. Other Chemical/Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks and Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks:
12. Evaporites, cherts, iron-rich sedimentary rocks, and phosphorites;
13. Carbonaceous sedimentary rocks;

Donal M. Ragan, "Structural Geology: An Introduction to Geometrical Techniques"

Donal M. Ragan, "Structural Geology: An Introduction to Geometrical Techniques"
Cambridge University Press | 2009 | ISBN: 0521897580, 0521745837 | 624 pages | PDF | 6,2 MB

This combination of text and lab book presents an entirely different approach to structural geology. Designed for undergraduate laboratory classes, it provides a step-by-step guide for solving geometric problems arising from structural field observations. The book discusses both traditional methods and cutting-edge approaches, with emphasis given to graphical methods and visualization techniques that support students in tackling challenging two- and three-dimensional problems. Numerous exercises encourage practice in using the techniques, and demonstrate how field observations can be converted into useful information about geological structures and the processes responsible for creating them. This updated fourth edition incorporates new material on stress, deformation, strain and flow, and the underlying mathematics of the subject. With stereonet plots and solutions to the exercises available online at, this book is a key resource for undergraduates, advanced students and researchers wanting to improve their practical skills in structural geology.


Harold Stowell - Geology of Southeast Alaska: Rock and Ice in Motion

Harold Stowell - Geology of Southeast Alaska: Rock and Ice in Motion
Publisher: University of Alaska Press | 2006-03-01 | ISBN: 188996381X | PDF | 152 pages | 5.79 MB

The most powerful forces on earth have shaped the landscape of Southeast Alaska. Scientists and visitors from around the world trek north to experience wild rivers, powerful glaciers, and breathtaking mountain peaks. Now, for the first time, a handy guide to the region is available. Complete with color illustrations revealing millions of years of geological history and in-depth descriptions of Sitka, Juneau, and Glacier Bay, Geology of Southeast Alaska is essential reading for anyone fascinated by rock and ice in motion.
Written by a geologist with over twenty-five years of experience in the north, Geology of Southeast Alaska will entertain and inform with abundant photographs and detailed drawings. Whether you want to understand the forces that shaped the state of Alaska, or you want to learn the basics of glacial movement, this compact, authoritative book is for you.

"Paleoseismology" ed. by James P. McCalpin

"Paleoseismology" ed. by James P. McCalpin
International Geophysics, Volume 95, Second Edition
Elsevier Inc | 2009 | ISBN: 0123735768 | 802 pages | PDF/djvu | 39/22 Mb

Completely updated version of a book solely devoted to paleoseismology. It summarizes the development of the field from the 1960s to the present. Chapters cover the entire range of techniques currently used in paleoseismic reconstruction.


Introduction to Paleoseismology
Field Techniques in Paleoseismology — Terrestrial Environments
Sub-Aqueous Paleoseismology
Paleoseismology in Extensional Tectonic Environments
Paleoseismology of Volcanic Environments
Paleoseismology of Compressional Tectonic Environments
Paleoseismology of Strike-Slip Tectonic Environments
Using Liquefaction-Induced and Other Soft-Sediment Features for Paleoseismic Analysis
Using Landslides for Paleoseismic Analysis
Application of Paleoseismic Data to Seismic Hazard Assessment and Neotectonic Research

Andrew D. Miall The Geology of Stratigraphic Sequences, Second Edition

Andrew D. Miall The Geology of Stratigraphic Sequences, Second Edition
Springer | 2010 | ISBN : 3642050263 | 864 pages | PDF | 27,7 MB

It has been more than a decade since the appearance of the First Edition of this book. Much progress has been made, but some controversies remain. The original ideas of Sloss and of Vail (building on the early work of Blackwelder, Grabau, Ulrich, Levorsen and others) that the stratigraphic record could be subdivided into sequences, and that these sequences store essential information about basin-forming and subsidence processes, remains as powerful an idea as when it was first formulated. The definition and mapping of sequences has become a standard part of the basin analysis process. The main purpose of this book remains the same as it was for the first edition, that is, to situate sequences within the broader context of geological processes, and to answer the question: why do sequences form? Geoscientists might thereby be better equipped to extract the maximum information from the record of sequences in a given basin or region. Tectonic, climatic and other mechanisms are the generating mechanisms for sequences ranging over a wide range of times scales, from hundreds of millions of years to the high-frequency sequences formed by cyclic processes lasting a few tens of thousands of years

John P. Rafferty, "The Paleozoic Era: Diversification of Plant and Animal Life"

John P. Rafferty, "The Paleozoic Era: Diversification of Plant and Animal Life"
Rosen Education Service | 2010 | ISBN: 1615301119, 1615301968 | 339 pages | PDF | 6,3 MB


The Paleozoic Era is probably less familiar and perhaps
less dramatic than the age of the dinosaurs that would
dominate the Mesozoic Era that followed. However, the
Paleozoic Era contained one of the most intense increases
in biodiversity in Earth’s history, the Cambrian explosion
and the subsequent Ordovician radiation. It also contained
the largest extinction event the world has ever
known, the Permian extinction, which wiped out more
than 90 percent of marine species and roughly 70 percent
of species on land. It was also a time of great geological
changes as landmasses migrated and collided, eventually
creating the supercontinent called Pangea. Sea levels rose,
drowning whole continents, fell, and rose again. Some of
Earth’s oldest mountain ranges, such as the Appalachians
and the Urals, were formed during the Paleozoic. Life
moved from the oceans to dry land and insects took wing
for the first time. Many evolutionary advances took place,
which set the stage for life as we know it today. Some of
these advances include the development of plants with
seeds, shelled eggs, and organisms capable of breathing
air. So in geologic history the Paleozoic Era was pretty
dramatic after all. In the pages that follow, all of these
developments, as well as the clues that scientists have used
to decipher the history of Earth’s changes, will be explored.
Spanning nearly 300 million years of history, from 542
to 251 million years ago, the Paleozoic Era covers more
than half of the Phanerozoic Eon, also known as the Age
of Life—the geologic time in which humans still live.
Scientists divide the Paleozoic into a number of smaller
periods, beginning with the Cambrian, approximately 542
million to 488 million years ago, followed by the
Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and
Permian periods. Most of these names are derived from
the locations in which rocks and fossils from that time


Soils in Archaeological Research By Vance T. Holliday

Soils in Archaeological Research By Vance T. Holliday
Publisher: OUP 2004 | 464 Pages | ISBN: 0195149653 | PDF | 6 MB

Soils, invaluable indicators of the nature and history of the physical and human landscape, have strongly influenced the cultural record left to archaeologists. Not only are they primary reservoirs for artifacts, they often encase entire sites. And soil-forming processes in themselves are an important component of site formation, influencing which artifacts, features, and environmental indicators (floral, faunal, and geological) will be destroyed and to what extent and which will be preserved and how well. In this book, Holliday will address each of these issues in terms of fundamentals as well as in field case histories from all over the world. The focus will be on principles of soil geomorphology , soil stratigraphy, and soil chemistry and their applications in archaeological research.

W. Schwarzacher, "Cyclostratigraphy and the Milankovitch Theory (Developments in Sedimentology)"

W. Schwarzacher, "Cyclostratigraphy and the Milankovitch Theory (Developments in Sedimentology)"
Publisher: Elsevier Science | 1993 | ISBN 0444896236 | PDF | 238 pages | 11.5 MB

Hardbound. Cyclostratigraphy is concerned primarily with measuring geological time and the time units used in this approach are sedimentary cycles. Milankovitch cycles mark time intervals of tens of thousands to several millions of years. Such cycles are the result of variations in the Earth's position in relation to the Sun and these in turn determine the climatic variations. The Milankovitch theory was resurrected in the 1960's when evidence from Pleistocene deep sea sediments linked orbital variations and climate.
This monograph discusses sedimentary cycles and their use in measuring geologic time. There is considerable effort made to clarify the term "sedimentary cycle", in particular, the two opposing concepts of cyclic stratification and event stratification. The recognition of sedimentary cycles and of Milankovitch cycles specifically, is considered and care is taken with the question of relating sediment thickness to time.

quinta-feira, 7 de outubro de 2010

Gunnar Larsen, "Diagenesis in Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks"

Gunnar Larsen, "Diagenesis in Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks"
Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd | 1979-06 | ISBN 0444416579 | PDF | 588 pages | 35.3 MB

The book Diagenesis in Sediments was published in 1967, almost a hundred years after introduction of the term “diagenesis” in eological literature, i.e., in 1868, in Von Guembel’s major work Geognostische Beschreibung des ostbayerischen Grenzge birges. Many decades passed, however, before research into diagenetic processes and products really got underway. It could be stated that up to the 1950’s, the topic of diagenesis formed only a very minor part of geological research literature (see for example, Trask, 1951,
and Sujkowski, 1958). Rapid development took place during the next fifteen years, as illustrated by the scope and contents of the above-mentioned work Diagenesis in Sediments. The demand for that book was such that the need arose for a new and revised edition. Because of the scope of the subject and the proliferation of literature on the subject, it has been necessary to publish the new edition in two volumes. This reflects the growth which has occurred in the research into diagenetic phenomena since the publication of the first edition.

Kurt Stüwe “Geodynamics of the Lithosphere: An Introduction"

Kurt Stüwe “Geodynamics of the Lithosphere: An Introduction"
Springer | 2007-04-19 | ISBN: 3540712364 | Djvu | 493 pages | 4 Mb

This book is an introductory text for all earth scientists interested in learning about the quantitative description of geological problems. It contains chapters on heat flow, sedimentary basin modelling, mechanics of continental deformation, PT path modelling, geomorphology and mass transfer and more. In its style, the book is aimed at the field oriented geologist that wants to begin with learning about the quantitative description of problems. Graduate students and scientists will find the book a good starting point for a quantitative treatment of their data. The new edition, revised and extended, features even more illustrations and maps, about 100 corrections of scientific problems, improvement of geomorphology section and shortening of several sections which obviously are too complicated. Update and modernisation of several sections, for example the section on pressure and updated references.

Laurence Robb, "Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes"

Laurence Robb, "Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes"
Publisher: Science Ltd. | 2005 | ISBN 0632063785 | PDF | 373 pages | 4.7 MB

Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes is the first senior undergraduate – postgraduate textbook to focus specifically on the multiplicity of geological processes that result in the formation of mineral deposits.
* Opens with an overview of magmatic ore-forming processes
* Moves systematically through hydrothermal and sedimentary metallogenic environments, covering as it does the entire gamut of mineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergene ores
* The final chapter relates metallogeny to global tectonics by examining the distribution of mineral deposits in space and time
* Boxed examples of world famous ore deposits are featured throughout pring context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis
* Brings the discipline of economic geology back into the realm of conventional mainstream earth science by emphasizing the fact that mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders of geological process and evolution.

Uwe W. Reimold, Roger L. Gibson, "Meteorite Impact: The Danger from Space and South Africa's Mega-Impact The Vrederfort Dome"

Uwe W. Reimold, Roger L. Gibson, "Meteorite Impact: The Danger from Space and South Africa's Mega-Impact The Vrederfort Dome"
Springer | 2010 | ISBN: 3642104630 | 326 pages | PDF | 188 MB

The impact of large extraterrestrial bolides (asteroids and comets) with Earth is an ever-present danger that humanity has only recently begun to recognise. Of the 175 impact craters found thus far on Earth, three giants stand out – Chicxulub in Mexico, Sudbury in Canada, and the Vredefort Impact Structure in South Africa. Each of these impact events catastrophically altered the global environment and was strong enough to drastically change life on our planet. The Vredefort Structure is the oldest and largest of these three giants and at about 300 km diameter it is nearly twice the size of the Chicxulub crater that was formed by an impact that wiped out approximately 75% of all known life on Earth 65 million years ago. In the more than 2000 million years since its formation, water, wind and ice have slowly eroded away the original Vredefort crater, exposing its roots in a series of spectacular rocks. The outcroppings in the region around the towns of Vredefort and Parys, known as the Vredefort Dome, show the scars of the cataclysmic forces that accompanied the impact event. The rocks, ripped from the depths of the crust by the impact, also tell a far older story that stretches back to more than 3500 million years ago, when the first continents formed on the primitive Earth, and to the time when fabulous gold deposits accumulated on the margins of the ancient Witwatersrand sea. The Vredefort Structure is truly one of the geological wonders of the world. While the rocks of the Vredefort Dome, and the story they have to tell, lie at the heart of this book, it is by no means the full story. The Dome is an area of spectacular scenic beauty and biodiversity, dominated by 40 kilometre-wide crescent of hills incised by the Vaal River and its tributaries. This area has also been home to humans for many thousands of years. Together, the rich geological, biological and archaeological heritage has led to the recognition of the most scenic part of the Vredefort Dome as a World Heritage Site.