sexta-feira, 25 de junho de 2010

Palaeosurfaces: Recognition, Reconstruction and Paleoenvironmental Interpretation

Palaeosurfaces: Recognition, Reconstruction and Paleoenvironmental Interpretation
Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1897799578 edition 1997 PDF 300 pages 32,7 mb
Palaeosurfaces is an area where geologists and geomorphologists can combine their expertise to provide a more holistic treatment of the processes that helped shape the face of the Earth. This volume presents a cross-disciplinary study of the evolution, reconstruction and palaeoenvironmental interpretation of ancient palaeosurfaces. Topics include palaeoenvironmental studies involving lateritization and bauxitization, palaeokarstification, geochemistry of rock alteration and the identification of ancient palaeosurface elements in both glaciated and tropical terrains.

Mechanisms of Activity & Unrest at Large Calderas - Special Publication no 269

Mechanisms of Activity & Unrest at Large Calderas - Special Publication no 269
Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392110 edition 2006 PDF 208 pages 58,3 mb
Large caldera collapses represent catastrophic natural events, second only to large meteoritic impacts. In addition, some calderas are densely populated, making the risk extreme, even for moderate eruptions. Understanding caldera mechanisms, unrest and the danger of eruption is therefore a crucial challenge for Earth sciences. Several key features of caldera behaviour have yet to be fully understood. Through a combination of case studies and theoretical modelling, the following topics are addressed in this volume: the conditions required to produce and to release large volumes of magma erupted during caldera formation; how magmatic feeding systems evolve before and after a caldera has formed; the processes that limit the behaviour of precursors to eruptions; how pre-eruptive precursors can be distinguished from those that drive unrest without an eruption; and given that post-collapse eruptions may occur across a wide area, the optimum procedures for designing hazard maps and mitigation strategies.

Metasomatism in Oceanic & Continental Lithospheric Mantle - Special Publication no 293

Metasomatism in Oceanic & Continental Lithospheric Mantle - Special Publication no 293
Publisher: Geological Society Of London ISBN: 1862392420 edition 2008 PDF 368 pages 8,9 mb
Twenty years have passed since Menzies & Hawkesworth extended the concept of metasomatism to mantle processes. The aim of this book is to gather together progress made on this topic since then. Most of the 14 papers reported in the volume rely on in situ major and trace element analyses of minerals and glasses in mantle xenoliths, and deal with different kinds of metasomatic agents at variable fluid/rock ratios in tectonic settings as different as intra-plate, mid-ocean ridge (ophiolites) and supra-subduction. The book contributes to the wide debate on the nature of the fluids migrating into the mantle wedge, as well as on the different residential times of the subduction signature. In addition papers on intra-plate settings deal with the problem of relating various metasomatic signatures to one single metasomatic event through an infiltration-reaction process.

Tectonics of Strike-Slip Restraining and Releasing Bends - Special Publication no 290

Tectonics of Strike-Slip Restraining and Releasing Bends - Special Publication no 290
Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392382 edition 2008 PDF 488 pages 20,4 mb
Restraining and releasing bends are common, but enigmatic features of strike-slip fault systems occurring in all crustal environments and at regional to microscopic scales of observation. Regional-scale restraining bends are sites of mountain building, transpressional deformation and basement exhumation, whereas releasing bends are sites of topographic subsidence, transtensional deformation, basin sedimentation and possible volcanism and economic mineralization. Because restraining and releasing bends often occur as singular self-contained domains of complex deformation, they are appealing natural laboratories for Earth scientists to study fault processes, earthquake seismology, active faulting and sedimentation, fault and fluid-flow relationships, links between tectonics and topography, tectonic and erosional controls on exhumation, and tectonic geomorphology.

quarta-feira, 16 de junho de 2010

Early Middle Pleistocene Transitions: The Land-Ocean Evidence (Special Publication, No. 247)

Early Middle Pleistocene Transitions: The Land-Ocean Evidence (Special Publication, No. 247)
Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862391815 edition 2005 PDF 336 pages 58 mb
The Early-Middle Pleistocene transition (around 1.2 to 0.5 Ma) marks a profound shift in Earth's climate state. Low-amplitude 41 ka climate cycles, dominating the earlier part of thePleistocene , gave way progressively to a 100 ka rhythm of increased amplitude that characterizes our present glacial-interglacial world. This volume assesses the biotic and physical response to this transition both on land and in the oceans: indeed it examines the very nature of Quaternary climate change. Milankovitch theory, palaeoceanography using isotopes and microfossils, marine organic geochemistry, tephrochronology, the record of loess and soil deposition, terrestrial vegetational change, and the migration and evolution of hominins as well as other large and small mammals, are all considered. These themes combine to explore the very origins of our present biota.

Cretaceous-Tertiary High-Latitude Palaeoenvironments: James Ross Basin, Antarctica - Special Publication no. 258

Cretaceous-Tertiary High-Latitude Palaeoenvironments: James Ross Basin, Antarctica - Special Publication no. 258
Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862391971 edition 2006 PDF 216 pages 76,9 mb
High-latitude settings are sensitive to climatically driven palaeoenvironmental change and the resultant biotic response. Climate change through the peak interval of Cretaceous warmth, Late Cretaceous cooling, onset and expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet, and subsequently the variability of Neogene glaciation, are all recorded within the sedimentary and volcanic successions exposed within the James Ross Basin, Antarctica. This site provides the longest onshore record of Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Antarctica and is a key reference section for Cretaceous-Tertiary global change. The sedimentary succession is richly fossiliferous, yielding diverse invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossil assemblages, allowing the reconstruction of both terrestrial and marine systems. The papers within this volume provide an overview of recent advances in the understanding of palaeoenvironmental change spanning the mid-Cretaceous to the Neogene of the James Ross Basin and related biotic change, and will be of interest to many working on Cretaceous and Tertiary palaeoenvironmental change.

The Gregory Rift Valley and Neogene-Recent Volcanoes of Northern Tanzania - Memoir no 33

The Gregory Rift Valley and Neogene-Recent Volcanoes of Northern Tanzania - Memoir no 33
Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862392676 edition 2009 PDF 112 pages 3,8 mb

The structure and volcanic activity of the northern Tanzania sector of the Gregory Rift Valley have hitherto been less well described than those in Ethiopia and Kenya. This book focuses on northern Tanzania where, although the volcanic area is smaller than those to the north, there are major features such as Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain on the African continent; Ngorongoro, one of the largest calderas on Earth; and Oldoinyo Lengai, the world's only active carbonatite volcano. Following an account of the discovery and early exploration of the rift valley, there are descriptions of the individual volcanoes. These are set within the context of the regional geology and geophysics of the rift valley, and in relation to the structural evolution of the rift and its associated sedimentary basins which include Olduvai, an important site in the history of human evolution The volume concludes with a discussion of the volcanism as related to the plume-related African Superswell.

K. Werner Barthel, N.H.M. Swimburne, S.C. Morris

K. Werner Barthel, N.H.M. Swimburne, S.C. MorrisSolnhofen: A Study in Mesozoic PalaeontologyCambridge
University Press 1994 ISBN: 0521458307 246 pages PDF 73 Mb
The celebrated Solnhofen limestone is among the most important fossil deposits because of its astonishing diversity of organisms, many exquisitely preserved. This book illustrates many of the marine and terrestrial creatures and plants, buried 150 million years ago in soft lagoonal muds, to provide a unique glimpse into the true diversity of Jurassic life. Highlights include Archaeopteryx. This is an authoritative account of the geological history, palaeoecology, palaeoenvironment and fossil taxonomy of this classic location. It will be of great interest to palaeontologists and evolutionary biologists, as well as to amateur collectors, natural historians and anyone with an interest in the history of life. This book is a revised and updated translation of Werner Barthel's classic work.

P. Van Rensbergen, R. R. Hillis, A. J. Maltman, C. K. Morley, "Subsurface Sediment Mobilization"

P. Van Rensbergen, R. R. Hillis, A. J. Maltman, C. K. Morley, "Subsurface Sediment Mobilization"
Geological Society of London; illustrated edition (November 1, 2003) English 1862391416 528 pages PDF 58.87 MB

Sedimentary facies in the subsurface are usually interpreted from a depositional/stratigraphical perspective: the depositional layering is generally considered to remain undisturbed, except in a few settings. But, there is growing evidence that subsurface sediment mobilization (SSM) is more widespread than previously thought, as new observations arise from the ever-increasing resolution of subsurface data. Many examples are from hydrocarbon provinces but studies elsewhere, for example in preparation for the underground storage of hazardous waste, have yielded unexpected examples. Although until now the different aspects of SSM, including soft sediment deformations, sand injections, shale diapirs, mud volcanoes, etc, have been separated, the new discoveries emphasize their inter-connection, regardless of scale, depth, location, grain size or trigger mechanism. This volume integrates the different aspects of sediment mobilization in the subsurface and their structural consequences, allowing a more general and a more coherent view of the subject.

quarta-feira, 9 de junho de 2010

D. Bruhn, L. Burlini (Editors), "High-Strain Zones: Structure and Physical Properties (No. 245)"

D. Bruhn, L. Burlini (Editors), "High-Strain Zones: Structure and Physical Properties (No. 245)"
Geological Society of London; 1st edition (August 23, 2005) English 1862391785 472 pages PDF 41.70 MB

This collection of research and review papers addresses the question of structural evolution during deformation to high strains and the physical properties of rocks that have been affected by high-strain zones. The discussions range from natural examples at outcrop to microscopic studies. They include experiments and numerical models based on the active processes in high-strain zones as well as studies on the physical properties of highly strained rocks in the field and laboratory. Specific questions addressed include magnetotelluric imaging of faults, magnetic fabrics, fabric development, seismic properties of highly strained rocks, change of rheology with strain, influence of melt on the localization of deformation, the relationship between deformation and metamorphism as well as new methods in the analysis of deformation. The book is aimed at an interdisciplinary group of readers interested in the effects of high strain in rocks.

Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms (2nd Edition)

Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms (2nd Edition)
American Geological Institute, US Bureau of MinesAm. Geol. Inst./US Bureau of Mines 1997 ISBN: 0922152365 3660 pages PDF 13 Mb

This edition, containing some 28,500 terms, is not meant to be exhaustive in its coverage. It focuses on mining-related terms and excludes such related categories as ceramics, glass, metallurgy, petroleum, and other specialized disciplines.It is the culmination not only standard mining-related terms but also terms in peripheral areas, such as the environment, marine mining, leaching, pollution, automation, health and safety. Many of these terms now have a legal definition based on law or regulation.

terça-feira, 1 de junho de 2010

Jon Erickson "Plate Tectonics: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Earth"

Jon Erickson "Plate Tectonics: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Earth" Published by Facts on File
Publication date : May 2001 ISBN : 0816043272 PDF 320 pages English 17 MB
For anyone who is interested in developments in the study of the Earth's structure, Plate Tectonics offers a full understanding of the theory that provides a single guiding principle to the earth's geological history. Beginning with a historical overview of plate tectonic theory in this century, the book describes in clear, non-technical language how plate tectonics work, how it affected evolution and extinction, and what the future holds.
Coverage includes:
- Seafloor Spreading
- Mountain Building
- The Rock Cycle
- Tectonics and the Environment
- Tectonics in Space
- Continental Draft
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Developments in Marine Geology, Volume 5: Quaternary Coral Reef Systems (History, development processes and controlling factors)

Developments in Marine Geology, Volume 5: Quaternary Coral Reef Systems (History, development processes and controlling factors)
Publisher: Elsevier Science ISBN: 0444532471 edition 2009 PDF 500 pages 11,9 mb
This book presents both state-of-the art knowledge from Recent coral reefs (1.8 million to a few centuries old) gained since the eighties, and introduces geologists, oceanographers and environmentalists to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystem encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. Scleractinian reefs first appeared about 300 million years ago. Today coral reef systems provide some of the most sensitive gauges of environmental change, expressing the complex interplay of chemical, physical, geological and biological factors. The topics covered will include the evolutionary history of reef systems and some of the main reef builders since the Cenozoic, the effects of biological and environmental forces on the zonation of reef systems and the distribution of reef organisms and on reef community dynamics through time, changes in the geometry, anatomy and stratigraphy of reef bodies and systems in relation to changes in sea level and tectonics, the distribution patterns of sedimentary (framework or detrital) facies in relation to those of biological communities, the modes and rates of reef accretion (progradation, aggradation versus backstepping; coral growth versus reef growth), the hydrodynamic forces controlling water circulation through reef structures and their relationship to early diagenetic processes, the major diagenetic processes affecting reef bodies through time (replacement and diddolution, dolomitization, phosphatogenesis), and the record of climate change by both individual coral colonies and reef systems over the Quaternary.

A. M. Harvey, "Alluvial Fans: Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Dynamics"

M. Harvey, "Alluvial Fans: Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Dynamics"
Geological Society of London 2005-11-01 ISBN: 1862391890 256 pages PDF 8,5 MB

Alluvial fans are important sedimentary environments. They trap sediment delivered from mountain source areas, and exert an important control on the delivery of sediment to downstream environments, to axial drainages and to sedimentary basins. They preserve a sensitive record of environmental change within the mountain source areas. Alluvial fan geomorphology and sedimentology reflect not only drainage basin size and geology, but change in response to tectonic, climatic and base-level controls. One of the challenges facing alluvial fan research is to resolve how these gross controls are reflected in alluvial fan dynamics and to apply the results of studies of modern fan processes and Quaternary fans to the understanding of sedimentary sequences in the rock record. This volume includes papers based on up-to-date research, and focuses on three themes: alluvial fan processes, dynamics of Quaternary alluvial fans and fan sedimentary sequences. Linking the papers is an emphasis on the controls of fan geomorphology, sedimentology and dynamics. This provides a basis for integration between geomorphological and sedimentological approaches, and an understanding how fluvial systems respond to tectonic, climatic and base-level changes.

Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured ReservoirsGulf Professional
Publishing April 15, 2001 ISBN-10: 0884153177 320 pages PDF 18.67 mb
Geologists, engineers, and petrophysicists concerned with hydrocarbon production from naturally fractured reservoirs will find this book a valuable tool for obtaining pertinent rock data to evaluate reserves and optimize well location and performance. Nelson emphasizes geological, petrophysical, and rock mechanics to complement other studies of the subject that use well logging and classical engineering approaches.

The Neoproterozoic Timanide Orogen Of Eastern Baltica

The Neoproterozoic Timanide Orogen Of Eastern Baltica
Publisher: Geological Society of London ISBN: 1862391726 edition 2006 PDF 255 pages 34,09 mb
The Neoproterozoic Timanide Orogen of eastern Baltica extends from the high Arctic to the southern Ural Mountains and represents significant crustal growth of the northeastern European continental margin in the late Neoproterozoic. This volume, a co-operation between Western European and Russian scientists within the framework of the European Science Foundation's EUROPROBE programme, provides a comprehensive overview of the orogen and represents a new synthesis of Timanian Orogeny. It includes: the pre-Timanian passive margin deposits of the northern and northeastern flank of the East European Craton; the magmatic, metamorphic and structural evolution of the orogen across the Timan Mountain and Pechora Basin regions to the Ural Mountains; the post-Timanian platform successions, important for interpreting the timing of orogeny and the return to an early Palaeozoic passive margin setting; and the extension of the orogen northwards to Novaya Zemlya. Relationships westwards to the Caledonides of Greenland and Scandinavia and eastwards to the Baikalides of Siberia are also treated.

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The Search for the Age of the Earth

The Chronologers' Quest: The Search for the Age of the Earth By Patrick Wyse Jackson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press 2006 310 Pages ISBN: 0521813328 PDF 3 MB
The history of geology and how we learned about the age of the Earth is a fascinating subject, but Jackson, a geologist at Trinity College, Dublin, is unable to explain and pass along his enthusiasm. Aficionados might appreciate the tour through attempts to arrive at the planet's age from ancient myths, the Bible, the salinity of the oceans, temperature readings, fossils, geology, biology, radiology and cosmology. Each chapter ends with a "close but no cigar" statement of why a given theory was a good idea at the time. Numerous sections feel rushed—in particular the opening catalogue of creation myths—though when readers finally arrive at the sections on geology and fossils, Jackson injects more detail and, consequently, more interest. But while the preface states that this book is meant for a general as well as scientific audience, too many terms go undefined and too many names are dropped without immediate explanations of who the people were.