quinta-feira, 23 de dezembro de 2010

Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German

Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German
North Holland; Mul edition | January 3, 2007 | ISBN-10: 0444510427 | 1072 pages | PDF | 27.5 Mb

Geography is a system of highly developed sciences about the environment. Geographical science embracing the study of the Earth's physical phenomena, people and their economic activities has always been in need of an extensive terminology. Geographical terms are related to the terms of natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, etc.) and humanities (history, economics, sociology, etc.) since geography is based on these fundamental subjects.

Geography includes a number of disciplines and subdivisions which appeared along with the development of the science In spite of being very different geographical disciplines have some common tools of investigation which is maps, comparative method of exploration, remote sensing, geoinformation systems.

Microtectonics

Microtectonics
Springer | December 15, 2005 | ISBN-10: 3540640037 | 366 pages | PDF | 30.46 MB

This book deals with descriptions and interpretations of small-scale structures in deformed rock, as seen … through an optical microscope. The text fills a valuable niche, as many textbooks on structural geology do not discuss microscopic aspects of deformation … . The book is extremely well illustrated with some 322 figures … . The book explains basic principles in a simple form with considerable references, enabling the reader to obtain more in-depth information … . I recommend it as an addition to any geologist’s bookshelf.

Making of the Earth: Geological Forces That Shape Our Planet

Making of the Earth: Geological Forces That Shape Our Planet
Facts on File | November 2000 | ISBN-10: 0816042764 | 257 pages | PDF | 8.5 Mb

We live on a dynamic planet with diverse landforms and bodies of water and ice. The vast surface of the Earth is constantly changing. Making of the Earth provides the latest research in the study of the natural and man-made forces that influence the scope and shape of the planet. Among the topics covered are Arctic geology, coastal geography, continental formation, desert features, erosion, glacial landscapes, global tectonics, mountain ranges, riverine topography, tectonic processes, unique landforms, and volcanic terrain.

Strength and Weathering of Rock As Boundary Layer Problems By Christine Butenuth

Strength and Weathering of Rock As Boundary Layer Problems By Christine Butenuth
Publisher: Wo rld Scient ific Publishi ng Compa ny 2001 | 296 Pages | ISBN: 1860942474 | DJVU | 3 MB



A geology and geoscience reference addressing: the concepts, definitions and experience of strength, the physical-chemical aspects of the strength of pure phases, strengthening of grain packings by 'intermolecular forces,' the behavior of Buntersandstone and lessons for understanding weathering processes, and more. Halftone illustrations.

Tony Parsons, "How To Do Your Dissertation in Geography and Related Disciplines, Second Edition"

Tony Parsons, "How To Do Your Dissertation in Geography and Related Disciplines, Second Edition"
Routl.dge | 2005 | ISBN: 0415341558 | 155 pages | PDF | 1,2 MB

This revised and updated edition of How To Do Your Dissertation In Geography and Related Disciplines continues to provide a detailed guide to the planning and procedures that students need to consider when preparing their dissertations in geography, environmental science and geology. Taking into account new sources, improved technology in production of the dissertation, and changes in teaching style, this text goes through each of the stages, from deciding what topic to work on, through designing the research and collecting the data, to handing in the final bound volume. With an extended consideration of different types of data (qualitative, quantitative and spatial) and a wider consideration of different approaches to problem solving the text suggests practical ways of tackling the tasks involved and locates common pitfalls associated with each.

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Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Wiley-VCH; 3 edition | March 22, 1999 | ISBN-10: 3527285717 | 965 pages | PDF | 68.53 Mb

The thoroughly revised new edition of this best-seller, presents the wide use of AAS in numerous fields of application. The comparison between the different AAS techniques enables the reader to find the best solution for his analytical problem.

Authors Bernhard Welz and Michael Sperling have succeeded in finding a balance between theoretical fundamentals and practical applications. The new chapter 'physical fundamentals' describes the basic principles of AAS. The development of AAS is now described in a separate chapter. Further new chapters are devoted to the latest developments in the field of flow injection and the use of computers for laboratory automation. Methodological progress e. g. speciation analysis is also covered in this new edition.

The index and the extensive bibliography make this book a unique source of information. It will prove useful not only for analytical chemists, out also spectroscopists in industry, institutes, and universities. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry will also be invaluable for clinics and research institutes in the fields of biochemistry, medicine, food technology, geology, metallurgy, petrochemistry, and mineralogy.

Dr Tom W Argles, Dr David A Rothery, Professor Robert A Spicer, and Dr Angela L. Coe, "Geological Field Techniques"

Dr Tom W Argles, Dr David A Rothery, Professor Robert A Spicer, and Dr Angela L. Coe, "Geological Field Techniques"
Wi-y-Black-well | 2010 | ISBN: 1444330624 | 336 pages | PDF | 31,9 MB

The understanding of Earth processes and environments over geological time is highly dependent upon both the experience that can only be gained through doing fieldwork, and the collection of reliable data and appropriate samples in the field. This textbook explains the main data gathering techniques used by geologists in the field and the reasons for these, with emphasis throughout on how to make effective field observations and record these in suitable formats. Equal weight is given to assembling field observations from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock types. There are also substantial chapters on producing a field notebook, collecting structural information, recording fossil data and constructing geological maps.

Geological Field Techniques is designed for students, amateur enthusiasts and professionals who have a background in geology and wish to collect field data on rocks and geological features. Teaching aspects of this textbook include:
step-by-step guides to essential practical skills such as using a compass-clinometer, making a geological map and drawing a field sketch;
tricks of the trade, checklists, flow charts and short worked examples;
over 200 illustrations of a wide range of field notes, maps and geological features;
appendices with the commonly used rock description and classification diagrams;
a supporting website hosted by Wiley Blackwell.


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Geological Formation Names of China (1866-2000)

Shouxin Zhang, "Geological Formation Names of China (1866-2000)"
Spr-inger | 2009 | ISBN: 3540938230 | 1784 pages | PDF | 10,1 MB

Geological Formation Names of China (1866—2000) is the only catalogue on stratigraphic nomenclature for China in the world to keep two writing types (Wade-Giles Romanization and Chinese Phonetic Alphabet) so as to provide convenience for domestic and overseas readers. The catalogue is intended for specialists and graduates in Geosciences and Stratigraphy. Shouxin Zhang (1927 —2006) was stratigrapher and research professor at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


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quarta-feira, 10 de novembro de 2010

Kevin R. Evans, James S. Aber From Precambrian Rift Volcanoes to the Mississippian Shelf Margin: Geological Field Excursions in the Ozark Mountains (G

Kevin R. Evans, James S. Aber From Precambrian Rift Volcanoes to the Mississippian Shelf Margin: Geological Field Excursions in the Ozark Mountains (GSA Field Guide 17)
Geological Society of America, Incorporated | 2010 | ISBN: 0813700175 | 764 pages | PDF | 38 MB

Developed in conjunction with the 2010 GSA North-Central/South-Central Section Meeting in Branson, Missouri, USA, this new volume from The Geological Society of America includes six field trips that convey discovery and insight into the long-studied geology of the Ozark region. This book is a valuable tool not just for the meeting attendee, but to all students of geoscience interested in following in the footsteps of the book’s authors.
Trips will examine world-class lead and zinc mineral accumulations in the tri-state mining district of Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; the Precambrian and Cambrian geology of Proffit Mountain as exposed by the catastrophic reservoir-collapse and flood scour that occurred along the East Fork of the Black River in December 2005; the geologic history of Riverbluff Cave in Springfield, Missouri; the rock resources of southwestern Missouri and the impact of geology on two Civil War battlefields there; and a comprehensive geologic mapping project centered along the Ozark Scenic National Riverways.

R. E. Holdsworth, R. A. Strachan, J. Magloughlin, R. J. Knipe, "The Nature and Tectonic Significance of Fault Zone Weakening"

R. E. Holdsworth, R. A. Strachan, J. Magloughlin, R. J. Knipe, "The Nature and Tectonic Significance of Fault Zone Weakening"
Publisher: Geological Society of London | 2001-10 | ISBN 1862390908 | PDF | 344 pages | 29.2 MB


Many faults appear to form persistent zones of weakness that fundamentally influence the distribution, architecture and movement patterns of crustal-scale deformation and associated process in both continental and oceanic regions. This book brings together papers by an international group of Earth Scientists to discuss a broad range of topics centred upon the controls of fault weakening and the role of such faults during lithosphere deformation. Readership:Academic structural-tectonic geologists, microstructural geologists, rheologists, geophysicists and people studying geodynamics. Also, petroleum geologists, hardrock geologists, mining geologists, hydrogeologists and metamorphic geologists. Suitable for postgraduate students.

M.B. McClenaghan, "Drift Exploration in Glaciated Terrain (Geological Society Special Publication)"

M.B. McClenaghan, "Drift Exploration in Glaciated Terrain (Geological Society Special Publication)"
Publisher: Geological Society | 2001 | ISBN 1862390827 | PDF | 360 pages | 13.9 MB

This volume describes the use of till geochemical and indicator mineral methods for mineral exploration in the glaciated terrain of Canada. The principles and examples described in this volume will have direct applications for exploration companies looking for diamonds, precious and base metals and uranium in glaciated parts of North America, northern Europe and Asia and mountainous regions of South America.

Ken McCaffrey, Lidia Lonergan, Jamie Wilkinson, "Fractures, Fluid Flow and Mineralization (Geological Society Special Publication No. 155)"

Ken McCaffrey, Lidia Lonergan, Jamie Wilkinson, "Fractures, Fluid Flow and Mineralization (Geological Society Special Publication No. 155)"
Publisher: Geological Society of London | 1999 | ISBN 1862390347 | PDF | 328 pages | 26.4 MB

Hydrothermal mineralization is usually structurally controlled so it is important to understand the role of faulting and fracturing in enhancing rock permeability and facilitating fluid flow and mass transfer. This is the main theme of this interdisciplinary volume and the papers included are intended to pre an overview of current ideas at the interfaces of structural geology, fluid flow and mineralization research. The volume includes some speculative but provocative ideas which should stimulate a re-examination of existing concepts regarding fluid flow in fracture systems and the genesis of hydrothermal mineral deposits. It also highlights recent advances which show the importance of the development of fracture connectivity in focusing fluid flow. The volume concludes with a thematic set of papers presenting new research results on the genesis of the world famous Carboniferous base metal deposits of Ireland. This volume is intended for geoscientists studying the flow of fluids through fault, vein and fracture systems or the genesis of mineral deposits and will be of interest principally to those involved in the minerals industry and in academia.

Coltorti Massimo, H. Downes, M. Gregoire, S. Y. O'Reilly Petrological Evolution of the European Lithospheric Mantle (Geological Society Special Public

Coltorti Massimo, H. Downes, M. Gregoire, S. Y. O'Reilly Petrological Evolution of the European Lithospheric Mantle (Geological Society Special Publication 337)
The Geological Society of London | 2010 | ISBN: 1862393044 | 256 pages | PDF | 5,9 MB

Several different databases and models have been developed over many years of petrological study carried out by several European and non-European groups on mantle xenoliths, peridotite massifs, ophiolites and mafic magmas spanning in age from Archaean to Recent times. This volume aims to bring together these different approaches and to integrate the geochemical perceptions of the European upper mantle. The papers include regional petrological studies of the European lithospheric mantle, from Spain to the Pannonian Basin, from Corsica and Serbia as far north as Svalbard. Six contributions are based on studies of mantle xenoliths, while the remaining three deal with ophiolitic and peridotitic complexes. A further article provides an update on the textural classification of mantle rocks using a computer-aided approach and there is an introductory overview.

terça-feira, 9 de novembro de 2010

M. Davies, L. s, R. S. J. Sparks, R. M. Mellors, D. M. Pyle, M. Lanphere, B. Barreirio, "Santorini Volcano (Geological Society Special Memoir, 19)"

M. Davies, L. s, R. S. J. Sparks, R. M. Mellors, D. M. Pyle, M. Lanphere, B. Barreirio, "Santorini Volcano (Geological Society Special Memoir, 19)"
Publisher: Geological Society of London | 1999 | ISBN 1862390487 | PDF | 165 pages | 18.9 MB

Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiti. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geo, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:20 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now.

Continental Tectonics (Geological Society Special Publication)

Continental Tectonics (Geological Society Special Publication)
Publisher: Geological Society of London | ISBN: 1862390517 | edition 1999 | PDF | 300 pages | 30,2 mb

The evolution of oceanic plates is very well described by plate tectonic theory, but the study of continental tectonics is more complicated. Continental plates have a different rheology, a greater mean age, a higher heat productivity, and are more heterogeneous in composition. An understanding of continental tectonics requires, therefore, that these effects upon rigid plate behaviour be taken into account. This book brings together a series of papers which explore various aspects of the deformation of continental lithosphere, covering different tectonic settings from the Palaeozoic to the present day. These include the processes of terrane accretion and juxtaposition, the exhumation of high-pressure terrains, and mechanisms of crustal extension and rifting. The book will be of general interest to a broad audience of earth scientists concerned with global tectonics, continental growth processes, and the deformation of the continents during collision, exhumation and extension.

R. D. Larter, "Intra-Oceanic Subduction Systems: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes (Geological Society Special Publication)"

R. D. Larter, "Intra-Oceanic Subduction Systems: Tectonic and Magmatic Processes (Geological Society Special Publication)"
Geological Society of London; illustrated edition (January 1, 2003) | English | 1862391475 | 352 pages | PDF | 37.92 MB

Recycling of oceanic plate back into the Earth's interior at subduction zones is one of the key processes in Earth evolution. Volcanic arcs, which form above subduction zones, are the most visible manifestations of plate tectonics, the convection mechanism by which the Earth loses excess heat. They are probably also the main location where new continental crust is formed, the so-called 'subduction factory'. About 40% of modern subduction zones on Earth are intra-oceanic. These subduction systems are generally simpler than those at continental margins as they commonly have a shorter history of subduction and their magmas are not contaminated by ancient sialic crust. They are therefore the optimum locations for studies of mantle processes and magmatic addition to the crust in subduction zones.
This volume contains a collection of papers that exploit the relative simplicity of intra-oceanic subduction systems to provide insights into the tectonic, magmatic and hydrothermal processes associated with subduction.

domingo, 17 de outubro de 2010

Shun-ichiro Karato, "Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth"

Shun-ichiro Karato, "Deformation of Earth Materials: An Introduction to the Rheology of Solid Earth"
Cambridge University Press; illustrated edition (March 10, 2008) | English | 0521844045 | 474 pages | PDF | 7.37 MB

Much of the recent progress in the solid earth sciences is based on interpretation of a range of geophysical and geological observations in terms of the properties and deformation of earth materials. This graduate textbook presents a comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way covering elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. Advanced discussions on current debates are also included to bring readers to the cutting-edge of science in this interdisciplinary area. This textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid Earth, and includes review questions with solutions so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in many fields including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.
A comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid earth geophysics and geology, this textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid earth. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.

"Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, Second Edition" by Sam Boggs, Jr.


"Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks, Second Edition" by Sam Boggs, Jr.
Cambridge University Press | 2009 | ISBN: 0521897165 | 612 pages | PDF | 15 Mb

This Second Edition maintains the fundamental structure of the original book, and presents a comprehensive treatment of sedimentary petrography and petrology. It has been thoroughly updated to include new concepts and ideas, and cutting-edge techniques such as cathodoluminescence imaging of sedimentary rocks and backscattered electron microscopy.

Numerous photographs and diagrams illustrate characteristic features while an extensive and up-to-date reference list provides a useful starting point for additional literature research.




This textbook is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in sedimentary petrology. It is also a key reference for researchers and professional petroleum geoscientists wanting to develop an understanding of the petrologic characteristics of sedimentary rocks and their geological significance.

Table of Contents

Part I. Principles:
1. Origin, classification and occurrence of sedimentary rocks;

Part II. Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks:
2. Sedimentary textures;
3. Sedimentary structures;
4. Sandstones;
5. Conglomerates;
6. Mudstones and shales;
7. Provenance of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks;
8. Diagenesis of sandstones and shales;

Part III. Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks:
9. Limestones;
10. Dolomites;
11. Diagenesis of carbonate rocks;

Part IV. Other Chemical/Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks and Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks:
12. Evaporites, cherts, iron-rich sedimentary rocks, and phosphorites;
13. Carbonaceous sedimentary rocks;
Bibliography;
Index.

Donal M. Ragan, "Structural Geology: An Introduction to Geometrical Techniques"

Donal M. Ragan, "Structural Geology: An Introduction to Geometrical Techniques"
Cambridge University Press | 2009 | ISBN: 0521897580, 0521745837 | 624 pages | PDF | 6,2 MB

This combination of text and lab book presents an entirely different approach to structural geology. Designed for undergraduate laboratory classes, it provides a step-by-step guide for solving geometric problems arising from structural field observations. The book discusses both traditional methods and cutting-edge approaches, with emphasis given to graphical methods and visualization techniques that support students in tackling challenging two- and three-dimensional problems. Numerous exercises encourage practice in using the techniques, and demonstrate how field observations can be converted into useful information about geological structures and the processes responsible for creating them. This updated fourth edition incorporates new material on stress, deformation, strain and flow, and the underlying mathematics of the subject. With stereonet plots and solutions to the exercises available online at www.cambridge.org/ragan, this book is a key resource for undergraduates, advanced students and researchers wanting to improve their practical skills in structural geology.


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Harold Stowell - Geology of Southeast Alaska: Rock and Ice in Motion

Harold Stowell - Geology of Southeast Alaska: Rock and Ice in Motion
Publisher: University of Alaska Press | 2006-03-01 | ISBN: 188996381X | PDF | 152 pages | 5.79 MB


The most powerful forces on earth have shaped the landscape of Southeast Alaska. Scientists and visitors from around the world trek north to experience wild rivers, powerful glaciers, and breathtaking mountain peaks. Now, for the first time, a handy guide to the region is available. Complete with color illustrations revealing millions of years of geological history and in-depth descriptions of Sitka, Juneau, and Glacier Bay, Geology of Southeast Alaska is essential reading for anyone fascinated by rock and ice in motion.
Written by a geologist with over twenty-five years of experience in the north, Geology of Southeast Alaska will entertain and inform with abundant photographs and detailed drawings. Whether you want to understand the forces that shaped the state of Alaska, or you want to learn the basics of glacial movement, this compact, authoritative book is for you.

"Paleoseismology" ed. by James P. McCalpin

"Paleoseismology" ed. by James P. McCalpin
International Geophysics, Volume 95, Second Edition
Elsevier Inc | 2009 | ISBN: 0123735768 | 802 pages | PDF/djvu | 39/22 Mb

Completely updated version of a book solely devoted to paleoseismology. It summarizes the development of the field from the 1960s to the present. Chapters cover the entire range of techniques currently used in paleoseismic reconstruction.





Contents

Introduction to Paleoseismology
Field Techniques in Paleoseismology — Terrestrial Environments
Sub-Aqueous Paleoseismology
Paleoseismology in Extensional Tectonic Environments
Paleoseismology of Volcanic Environments
Paleoseismology of Compressional Tectonic Environments
Paleoseismology of Strike-Slip Tectonic Environments
Using Liquefaction-Induced and Other Soft-Sediment Features for Paleoseismic Analysis
Using Landslides for Paleoseismic Analysis
Application of Paleoseismic Data to Seismic Hazard Assessment and Neotectonic Research

Andrew D. Miall The Geology of Stratigraphic Sequences, Second Edition

Andrew D. Miall The Geology of Stratigraphic Sequences, Second Edition
Springer | 2010 | ISBN : 3642050263 | 864 pages | PDF | 27,7 MB

It has been more than a decade since the appearance of the First Edition of this book. Much progress has been made, but some controversies remain. The original ideas of Sloss and of Vail (building on the early work of Blackwelder, Grabau, Ulrich, Levorsen and others) that the stratigraphic record could be subdivided into sequences, and that these sequences store essential information about basin-forming and subsidence processes, remains as powerful an idea as when it was first formulated. The definition and mapping of sequences has become a standard part of the basin analysis process. The main purpose of this book remains the same as it was for the first edition, that is, to situate sequences within the broader context of geological processes, and to answer the question: why do sequences form? Geoscientists might thereby be better equipped to extract the maximum information from the record of sequences in a given basin or region. Tectonic, climatic and other mechanisms are the generating mechanisms for sequences ranging over a wide range of times scales, from hundreds of millions of years to the high-frequency sequences formed by cyclic processes lasting a few tens of thousands of years

John P. Rafferty, "The Paleozoic Era: Diversification of Plant and Animal Life"

John P. Rafferty, "The Paleozoic Era: Diversification of Plant and Animal Life"
Rosen Education Service | 2010 | ISBN: 1615301119, 1615301968 | 339 pages | PDF | 6,3 MB

Introduction:

The Paleozoic Era is probably less familiar and perhaps
less dramatic than the age of the dinosaurs that would
dominate the Mesozoic Era that followed. However, the
Paleozoic Era contained one of the most intense increases
in biodiversity in Earth’s history, the Cambrian explosion
and the subsequent Ordovician radiation. It also contained
the largest extinction event the world has ever
known, the Permian extinction, which wiped out more
than 90 percent of marine species and roughly 70 percent
of species on land. It was also a time of great geological
changes as landmasses migrated and collided, eventually
creating the supercontinent called Pangea. Sea levels rose,
drowning whole continents, fell, and rose again. Some of
Earth’s oldest mountain ranges, such as the Appalachians
and the Urals, were formed during the Paleozoic. Life
moved from the oceans to dry land and insects took wing
for the first time. Many evolutionary advances took place,
which set the stage for life as we know it today. Some of
these advances include the development of plants with
seeds, shelled eggs, and organisms capable of breathing
air. So in geologic history the Paleozoic Era was pretty
dramatic after all. In the pages that follow, all of these
developments, as well as the clues that scientists have used
to decipher the history of Earth’s changes, will be explored.
Spanning nearly 300 million years of history, from 542
to 251 million years ago, the Paleozoic Era covers more
than half of the Phanerozoic Eon, also known as the Age
of Life—the geologic time in which humans still live.
Scientists divide the Paleozoic into a number of smaller
periods, beginning with the Cambrian, approximately 542
million to 488 million years ago, followed by the
Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and
Permian periods. Most of these names are derived from
the locations in which rocks and fossils from that time

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Soils in Archaeological Research By Vance T. Holliday

Soils in Archaeological Research By Vance T. Holliday
Publisher: OUP 2004 | 464 Pages | ISBN: 0195149653 | PDF | 6 MB



Soils, invaluable indicators of the nature and history of the physical and human landscape, have strongly influenced the cultural record left to archaeologists. Not only are they primary reservoirs for artifacts, they often encase entire sites. And soil-forming processes in themselves are an important component of site formation, influencing which artifacts, features, and environmental indicators (floral, faunal, and geological) will be destroyed and to what extent and which will be preserved and how well. In this book, Holliday will address each of these issues in terms of fundamentals as well as in field case histories from all over the world. The focus will be on principles of soil geomorphology , soil stratigraphy, and soil chemistry and their applications in archaeological research.

W. Schwarzacher, "Cyclostratigraphy and the Milankovitch Theory (Developments in Sedimentology)"

W. Schwarzacher, "Cyclostratigraphy and the Milankovitch Theory (Developments in Sedimentology)"
Publisher: Elsevier Science | 1993 | ISBN 0444896236 | PDF | 238 pages | 11.5 MB

Hardbound. Cyclostratigraphy is concerned primarily with measuring geological time and the time units used in this approach are sedimentary cycles. Milankovitch cycles mark time intervals of tens of thousands to several millions of years. Such cycles are the result of variations in the Earth's position in relation to the Sun and these in turn determine the climatic variations. The Milankovitch theory was resurrected in the 1960's when evidence from Pleistocene deep sea sediments linked orbital variations and climate.
This monograph discusses sedimentary cycles and their use in measuring geologic time. There is considerable effort made to clarify the term "sedimentary cycle", in particular, the two opposing concepts of cyclic stratification and event stratification. The recognition of sedimentary cycles and of Milankovitch cycles specifically, is considered and care is taken with the question of relating sediment thickness to time.

quinta-feira, 7 de outubro de 2010

Gunnar Larsen, "Diagenesis in Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks"

Gunnar Larsen, "Diagenesis in Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks"
Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd | 1979-06 | ISBN 0444416579 | PDF | 588 pages | 35.3 MB


The book Diagenesis in Sediments was published in 1967, almost a hundred years after introduction of the term “diagenesis” in eological literature, i.e., in 1868, in Von Guembel’s major work Geognostische Beschreibung des ostbayerischen Grenzge birges. Many decades passed, however, before research into diagenetic processes and products really got underway. It could be stated that up to the 1950’s, the topic of diagenesis formed only a very minor part of geological research literature (see for example, Trask, 1951,
and Sujkowski, 1958). Rapid development took place during the next fifteen years, as illustrated by the scope and contents of the above-mentioned work Diagenesis in Sediments. The demand for that book was such that the need arose for a new and revised edition. Because of the scope of the subject and the proliferation of literature on the subject, it has been necessary to publish the new edition in two volumes. This reflects the growth which has occurred in the research into diagenetic phenomena since the publication of the first edition.

Kurt Stüwe “Geodynamics of the Lithosphere: An Introduction"

Kurt Stüwe “Geodynamics of the Lithosphere: An Introduction"
Springer | 2007-04-19 | ISBN: 3540712364 | Djvu | 493 pages | 4 Mb

This book is an introductory text for all earth scientists interested in learning about the quantitative description of geological problems. It contains chapters on heat flow, sedimentary basin modelling, mechanics of continental deformation, PT path modelling, geomorphology and mass transfer and more. In its style, the book is aimed at the field oriented geologist that wants to begin with learning about the quantitative description of problems. Graduate students and scientists will find the book a good starting point for a quantitative treatment of their data. The new edition, revised and extended, features even more illustrations and maps, about 100 corrections of scientific problems, improvement of geomorphology section and shortening of several sections which obviously are too complicated. Update and modernisation of several sections, for example the section on pressure and updated references.






Laurence Robb, "Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes"

Laurence Robb, "Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes"
Publisher: Science Ltd. | 2005 | ISBN 0632063785 | PDF | 373 pages | 4.7 MB

Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes is the first senior undergraduate – postgraduate textbook to focus specifically on the multiplicity of geological processes that result in the formation of mineral deposits.
* Opens with an overview of magmatic ore-forming processes
* Moves systematically through hydrothermal and sedimentary metallogenic environments, covering as it does the entire gamut of mineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergene ores
* The final chapter relates metallogeny to global tectonics by examining the distribution of mineral deposits in space and time
* Boxed examples of world famous ore deposits are featured throughout pring context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis
* Brings the discipline of economic geology back into the realm of conventional mainstream earth science by emphasizing the fact that mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders of geological process and evolution.

Uwe W. Reimold, Roger L. Gibson, "Meteorite Impact: The Danger from Space and South Africa's Mega-Impact The Vrederfort Dome"

Uwe W. Reimold, Roger L. Gibson, "Meteorite Impact: The Danger from Space and South Africa's Mega-Impact The Vrederfort Dome"
Springer | 2010 | ISBN: 3642104630 | 326 pages | PDF | 188 MB

The impact of large extraterrestrial bolides (asteroids and comets) with Earth is an ever-present danger that humanity has only recently begun to recognise. Of the 175 impact craters found thus far on Earth, three giants stand out – Chicxulub in Mexico, Sudbury in Canada, and the Vredefort Impact Structure in South Africa. Each of these impact events catastrophically altered the global environment and was strong enough to drastically change life on our planet. The Vredefort Structure is the oldest and largest of these three giants and at about 300 km diameter it is nearly twice the size of the Chicxulub crater that was formed by an impact that wiped out approximately 75% of all known life on Earth 65 million years ago. In the more than 2000 million years since its formation, water, wind and ice have slowly eroded away the original Vredefort crater, exposing its roots in a series of spectacular rocks. The outcroppings in the region around the towns of Vredefort and Parys, known as the Vredefort Dome, show the scars of the cataclysmic forces that accompanied the impact event. The rocks, ripped from the depths of the crust by the impact, also tell a far older story that stretches back to more than 3500 million years ago, when the first continents formed on the primitive Earth, and to the time when fabulous gold deposits accumulated on the margins of the ancient Witwatersrand sea. The Vredefort Structure is truly one of the geological wonders of the world. While the rocks of the Vredefort Dome, and the story they have to tell, lie at the heart of this book, it is by no means the full story. The Dome is an area of spectacular scenic beauty and biodiversity, dominated by 40 kilometre-wide crescent of hills incised by the Vaal River and its tributaries. This area has also been home to humans for many thousands of years. Together, the rich geological, biological and archaeological heritage has led to the recognition of the most scenic part of the Vredefort Dome as a World Heritage Site.

quinta-feira, 9 de setembro de 2010

Garry D. Karner, Brian Taylor, Neal W. Driscoll, David L. Kohlstedt - Rheology and Deformation of the Lithosphere at Continental Margins

Garry D. Karner, Brian Taylor, Neal W. Driscoll, David L. Kohlstedt - Rheology and Deformation of the Lithosphere at Continental Margins
Publisher: Columbia University Press | 2004-03-03 | ISBN: 0231127383 | PDF | 408 pages | 15.50 MB


Traditionally, investigations of the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere (the rigid or mechanically strong outer layer of the Earth, which contains the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle) have taken place at one scale in the laboratory and at an entirely different scale in the field. Laboratory experiments are generally restricted to centimeter-sized samples and day- or year-length times, while geological processes occur over tens to hundreds of kilometers and millions of years. The application of laboratory results to geological systems necessitates extensive extrapolation in both time and spatial scales, as well as a detailed understanding of the dominant physical mechanisms. The development of an understanding of large-scale processes requires an integrated approach.
This book explores the current cutting-edge interdisciplinary research in lithospheric rheology and provides a broad summary of the rheology and deformation of the continental lithosphere in both extensional and compressional settings. Individual chapters explore contemporary research resulting from laboratory, observational, and theoretical experiments.

Applied Stratigraphy (Topics in Geobiology)

Applied Stratigraphy (Topics in Geobiology)
Publisher: Springer | ISBN: 140206683X | edition 2007 | PDF | 471 pages | 10,8 mb

Few, if any, fundamental disciplines in the earth sciences have seen so many dramatic changes and developments as stratigraphy. The discipline has come to be applied progressively, and indispensably, to nearly all branches of the earth sciences, including such endeavors as charting the course and complexities of life evolution through time, understanding how ancient ecosystems developed and operated, and furnishing data pivotal to exploration and exploitation of strategic mineral resources.This book aims to incorporate major aspects and essential elements underpinning the modern applications and perspectives of stratigraphy. It focuses on traditional and innovative techniques and how these can be utilized in reconstructing the geological history of sedimentary basins and in solving manifold geological problems and phenomena. Each chapter summarizes contributions by leading researchers in the field. It is hoped that this book will provide the reader with key insights into all these aspects and applications.

Onno Oncken, "The Andes"

Onno Oncken, "The Andes"
Springer | 2006-11-14 | ISBN: 3540243291 | 592 pages | PDF | 34 MB

This book will provide the first comprehensive overview of a complete subduction orogen, the Andes (considered to represent the type subduction belt on Earth), integrating the results from a wide variety of methods. For example, our results provide the so far densest and most highly resolved geophysical image of an active subduction orogen. Dense geodetic data and a range of geological observations complement these results. These all contribute towards a process-oriented understanding of the mechanisms driving subduction orogeny in its various manifestations. We plan to provide the results which were accumulated during 12 years of integrated research, by covering all fields of Earth Sciences in the various contributions to the volume, in a range of formats including a CD-Rom with maps, geological sections, geophysical results and a data depository. These may be complemented by an existing web site that will be further developed in close contact with the planned book.



Simon Adams, David Lambert, "Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide to Science (Science Visual Resources)"

Simon Adams, David Lambert, "Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide to Science (Science Visual Resources)"
Chelsea House Publications | 2006 | ISBN: 0816061645 | 208 pages | PDF | 22,6 MB

"Earth Science: An Illustrated Guide to Science" is one of eight volumes of "Facts On File's" new "Science Visual Resources" set. Containing six sections, a comprehensive glossary, a Web site guide, and an index, Biology is an ideal learning tool for students and teachers of science. Full-colour diagrams, graphs, charts, and maps on every page illustrate the essential elements of the subject, while parallel text provides key definitions and step-by-step explanations. The six sections include: "Planet Earth" - considers Earth's place in the Solar System and its relationship to the Sun, the Moon, and the environment of interplanetary space. Topics covered in this section include solar and lunar eclipses, tides, seasons, and Earth's magnetic field. "Earth's History" - examines the basic principles used by geologists to determine the age of rocks and the use of fossil evidence in determining the sequence of geological events. There is a comprehensive survey of the history of life on Earth and a general description of each of the geological eons. A sequence of pages traces the history of the North American continent through each geological period, showing the prevailing conditions and the kind of life forms that have flourished there. "Earth's Rocks" - is concerned with the processes that create and modify Earth's geology. The relative abundance of minerals on our planet; the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; and the processes of plate tectonics are examined in this section. "Air and Oceans" - is an overview of the shallow but complex layer of gas and water that surrounds our planet and supports all animal and plant life. The types and causes of all significant weather phenomena are covered here, as well as the intimate connections between the oceans and the atmosphere. Heat transfer between air and oceans and the planet-wide systems of circulation driven by solar energy are also explained here. "Erosion and Weathering" - looks at the constant wearing down of the Earth's rocks by the combined actions of the atmosphere and the oceans. Mechanical and chemical weathering, the formation and movement of soil, and the geological forms produced by the actions of rivers and glaciers are all featured in this section. Wind erosion and the formation and spread of desert landscapes are also covered. "Comparisons" - gives the relative scales of major planetary features, such as oceans, rivers, continents, and mountain ranges.




domingo, 29 de agosto de 2010

Martin J. van Kranendonk, Hugh Smithies, Vickie Bennett “Earth's Oldest Rocks, Volume 15 (Developments in Precambrian Geology)"


Martin J. van Kranendonk, Hugh Smithies, Vickie Bennett “Earth's Oldest Rocks, Volume 15 (Developments in Precambrian Geology)"
Elsevier Science | 2007-11-01 | ISBN: 2007-11-01 | 1330 pages | PDF | 32,2 MB

Earths Oldest Rocks provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of early Earth, from planetary accretion through to development of protocratons with depleted lithospheric keels by c. 3.2 Ga, in a series of papers written by over 50 of the world's leading experts. The book is divided into two chapters on early Earth history, ten chapters on the geology of specific cratons, and two chapters on early Earth analogues and the tectonic framework of early Earth. Individual contributions address topics that range from planetary accretion, a review of Earth meteorites, significance and composition of Hadean protocrust, composition of Archaean mantle and deep crust, all aspects of the geology of Paleoarchean cratons, composition of Archean oceans and hydrothermal environments, evidence and geological settings of early life, early Earth analogues from Venus and New Zealand, and a tectonic framework for early Earth.

* Contains comprehensive reviews of areas of ancient lithosphere on Earth, of planetary accretion processes, and of meteorites
* Focuses on specific aspects of early Earth, including oldest putative life forms, evidence of the composition of the ancient atmosphere-hydrosphere, and the oldest evidence for subduction-accretion
* Presents an overview of geological processes and model of the tectonic framework on early Earth






The Ocean - Precambrian (Hadean-Archaean) [digipack 2CD](2007)

abel: Metal Blade Records
Release date: 2007-11-12
Catalog: 3984-14643-2

Review (Jason Jordan, www.metalreview.com)
Organized according to geological time, The Ocean’s ambitious third full-length Precambrian is a monster of an album that spans 84 minutes and unfolds over the course of two discs. The first is the heavy-handed Hadean/Archaean, the shorter of the two at about 22 minutes even, while Proterozoic, though certainly containing aggressive bursts during its approximate 62 minutes, also offers the lighter side of the spectrum. And for those of you who haven’t explored the music of this German collective, Precambrian is an unabashed triumph that easily trumps all previous endeavors.

Hadean/Archaean

As outlined above, H/A is the heavier offering here, and avoids dawdling by launching directly into “Hadean / The Long March of the Yes-Men” – a keyboard-rich attack laced with loose, gravelly growls and The Ocean’s signature riffs and tumbling rhythms. Often grouped in with Georgians Mastodon, it’s “Eoarchaean / The Great Void” that parallels them most via roller coaster peaks and valleys, similar tones, and convincing instrumental sections. While “Palaeoarchaean / Man and the Sea” is fast with a hardcore punk-like tempo, the groove-oriented follower “Mesoarchaean / Legions of Winged Octopi” is the true crusher of the bunch, even rivaling “The City in the Sea” from the 2005 affair Aeolian, but “Neoarchaean / To Burn the Duck of Doubt” also momentarily sets itself apart with its optimistic, Pelican-esque melodies.

Proterozoic

Noticeably mellower from the get-go – due primarily to instrumental, sax-laden intro “Siderian” – Proterozoic again lends credence to the Neur-Isis comparisons that The Ocean have garnered since their 2004 debut long-player FluXion. “Rhyacian / Untimely Meditations” provides the first real taste of clean vocals, along with piano, glockenspiel, and orchestral instruments such as the viola, violin, and cello during its lax opening and laidback portions, but soon the growls take the helm before stepping into the background, albeit not for good as the latter part has its share of earth-shattering moments. “Orosirian / For the Great Blue Cold Now Reigns” is when and where the Neurosis, Isis, and Cult of Luna-isms rear their heads, and the crashing waves prove this assertion repeatedly as they do elsewhere. “Statherian,” however, is a regal instrumental that eventually crescendos into an impressive romp replete with soundclips, layered melodies, and a medieval close. Also vocal-free is the ninth and final track “Cryogenian.” Proterozoic’s middle, consisting of “Calymmian / Lake Disappointment,” doomy dirge “Ecstasian / De Profundis,” and “Stenian / Mount Sorrow” also employ the drifting/crashing dichotomy found in likeminded mobs, but is no less arresting than the surrounding material. In fact, even the tail end, comprised of “Tonian / Confessions of a Dangerous Mind” and classical-influenced outro “Cryogenian,” holds its own among stellar company.

Not only are there two discs, but there are separate booklets that correspond to each. While the two discs are categorized by eons, the songs are divided into sections based on eras, and the songs themselves are named after periods, except for those of the first disc, which are named after eras, too. Does this make it difficult to recall their titles and/or give a fuck about them in the first place? Frankly, yes. However, every track has a second, non-geological name that appears in the liner notes, also listed above, but not on the tray insert, so there’s hope yet for those who want to memorize the titles to yell them out during The Ocean’s shows. In addition, another flaw is that of double disc releases in general – one CD will take usually take precedence over the other. I’m not convinced that they couldn’t have shaved a few minutes here and there to condense the material so that it’d fit on a single, rotund piece of plastic, because, to be honest, Precambrian isn’t the most fluid album anyway.

Regardless, this is by and large The Ocean’s finest hour in spite of its minuscule weaknesses. In line with the TO MO, there are guest appearances from the likes of Dwid Hellion (Integrity), Eric Kalsbeek (Textures), Nate Newton (Converge, Doomriders), Caleb Scofield (Cave In, Old Man Gloom, Zozobra), and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, obviously excluding the mass of other contributors, making Precambrian all the more alluring. Thankfully, there’s a wealth of information on the band’s official website, so if you’re looking for more, that’s the place to visit. Otherwise, all you need to know is that this rocks hard, and is one of the best albums of 2007.

- Track List

Disc 1 (Hadean/Archaean)

I.Hadean
1. Hadean - 3:48

II.Archaean
2. Eorchean - 4:45
3. Paleoachean - 2:46
4. Mesoarchean - 5:20
5. Neoarchean - 5:24

Disc 2 (Proterozoic):

III.Palaeoproterozoic
1. Siderian - 1:56
2. Rhyacian - 10:57
3. Orosirian - 6:29
4. Statherian - 5:57

IV.Mesoproterozoic
5. Calymmian - 8:18
6. Ectasian - 8:58
7. Stenian - 8:19

V.Neoproterozoic
8. Tonian - 7:18
9. Cryogenian - 3:29



Eduardo A.M. Koutsoukos (Editor), "Applied Stratigraphy"

Eduardo A.M. Koutsoukos (Editor), "Applied Stratigraphy"
Springer | ISBN: 140206683X | 1 edition (September 2007) | PDF | 471 pages | 11367 KB

Few, if any, fundamental disciplines in the earth sciences have seen so many dramatic changes and developments as stratigraphy. The discipline has come to be applied progressively, and indispensably, to nearly all branches of the earth sciences, including such endeavors as charting the course and complexities of life evolution through time, understanding how ancient ecosystems developed and operated, and furnishing data pivotal to exploration and exploitation of strategic mineral resources.

This book aims to incorporate major aspects and essential elements underpinning the modern applications and perspectives of stratigraphy. It focuses on traditional and innovative techniques and how these can be utilized in reconstructing the geological history of sedimentary basins and in solving manifold geological problems and phenomena. Each chapter summarizes contributions by leading researchers in the field. It is hoped that this book will provide the reader with key insights into all these aspects and applications.